Eröffnungsworkshop 30.–31. Januar 2015 (Programm und Abstracts)


Date: Janu­a­ry, 30 – 31, 2015. 

Orga­nis­ed by:

  • Prof. Dr. Ravi Ahu­ja, Uni­ver­si­tät Göt­tin­gen, Cent­re for Modern Indian Stu­dies (CeMIS)
  • Dr. Hei­ke Lie­bau, Zen­trum Moder­ner Ori­ent (ZMO) Ber­lin
  • Prof. Dr. Micha­el Mann, Hum­boldt-Uni­ver­si­tät zu Ber­lin, Insti­tut für Asi­en- und Afri­ka­wis­sen­schaf­ten (IAAW)

Down­load the pro­gram­me as PDF.

Programme:

Friday, 30.01.2015

09.30 – 09.45 Micha­el Mann, Ber­lin
Ope­ning
9.45 – 10.30 Ravi Ahu­ja, Göt­tin­gen
Intro­du­cing MIDA
10.30 – 12.30
Panel 1 — Moderation: Ravi Ahuja
10.30 – 11.15 Lydia Hauth, Leip­zig [P] A Ger­man Rese­ar­cher in India – Egon von Eickstedt‘s Collec­tion at the Sta­te Eth­no­gra­phic Collec­tions of Sax­o­ny
11.15 – 11.45 Cof­fee Break
11.30 – 12.30 Jahn­a­vi Phal­key, Lon­don [P]

12.30 – 15.00

Panel 2 — Moderation: Martin Christof-Füchsle
12.30 – 13.15 Adam Jones, Leip­zig [R]
14.15 – 15.00 Armin Grün­ba­cher, Bir­ming­ham [P] Ger­man Con­ser­va­ti­ves, India and the Hall­stein Doc­tri­ne. A docu­ment from the Chan­cel­le­ry
15.00 – 17.00
Panel 3 — Moderation: Anandita Bajpai
15.00 – 15.45 Chen Tzo­ref-Ash­ken­azi, Ber­lin [P] Archi­val Sources on the Hano­ve­r­i­an Regi­ments in India: The Nie­der­säch­si­sches Lan­des­ar­chiv in Hano­ver
15.45 – 16.15 Cof­fee Break
16.15 – 17.00 Vanda­na Joshi, Ber­lin [P] Bet­ween Era­su­re and Remem­bran­ce: Shreds from the Kriegs­all­tag of South Asi­an Fau­jis (Sipahis) in Stamm­la­gern, Arbeits­kom­man­dos, Laza­ret­ten and Gra­ves (1939–45)
17.00 – 18.30
Panel 4 — Moderation: Anandita Bajpai
17.00 – 17.45 Joa­chim Oes­ter­held, Ber­lin [R]
17.45 – 18.30 Georg Met­zig (Regens­burg) [P] All­tag und Mis­si­on. Deutsch­spra­chi­ge Jesui­ten im por­tu­gie­si­schen Welt­reich (1616–1773)

Saturday, 31.01.2015

9.00 – 10.30
Panel 5 — Moderation: Anna Sailer
9.00 – 9.45 Mri­na­li­ni Sebas­ti­an, Phil­adel­phia [P] The Other Sto­ry of Indo­lo­gy: European Mis­sio­na­ries and the Glo­bal Jour­neys of Ver­na­cu­lar Know­ledge
9.45 – 10.30 Diethelm Wei­de­mann, Ber­lin [R]
10.30 – 11.00 Cof­fee Break
11.00 – 12.30
Panel 6 — Moderation: Heike Liebau
11.00 – 11.45 Key­van Dja­han­gi­ri, Ber­lin [P] ‘Cen­tres of Cal­cu­la­ti­on’ or Dead End? Ear­ly Modern Mate­ri­al on ‘India’ in Ger­man Archi­ves
11.45 – 12.30 Brit­ta Klos­ter­berg, Hal­le [P] Die Quel­len zur Dänisch-Hal­le­schen Mis­si­on im Archiv der Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen
12.30 – 13.30 Lunch Break
13.30 – 15.30
Panel 7 — Moderation: Michael Mann
13.30 – 14.15 Ajay Bha­ra­dwaj, Rag­ha­ven­dra Rao Karka­la Vasu­de­vaiah and Anne Mur­phy, Van­cou­ver [P] Ear­ly films/images in and about India: The Ger­man Lens
14.15 – 15.30 Debja­ni Bhat­tacha­ry­ya, Phil­ade­phia [P] The Influ­ence of Ger­man Town Plan­ning in Bri­tish India: Tra­cing the Heri­ta­ge of Lex Adi­kes
15.30 – 16.00 Cof­fee Break
16.00 – 17.00
Panel 8 — Moderation Heike Liebau
17.00 – 17.15 Frank Drausch­ke, Ber­lin [R]
17.15 – 18.00 Hei­ke Lie­bau, Ber­lin
Round table dis­cus­sion: Whe­re do we go from here?

Abstracts:

Lydia Hauth 

Staat­li­che Eth­no­gra­phi­sche Samm­lun­gen Sach­sen (SES) / Staat­li­che Kunst­samm­lun­gen Dres­den (SKD))

A German Researcher in India – Egon von Eickstedt’s Collection at the State Ethnographic Collections of Saxony

In 1926 Egon von Eick­stedt, a Ger­man phy­si­cal anthro­po­lo­gist, was sent out on a 2 years expe­di­ti­on to India by the Muse­um of Eth­no­gra­phy, Leip­zig and the Sta­te Rese­arch Insti­tu­te for Eth­no­lo­gy in Leip­zig in order to recon­struct the histo­ry of ear­ly sett­le­ment in South Asia. During the expe­di­ti­on he collec­ted anthro­po­lo­gi­cal data and eth­no­gra­phic objec­ts and sys­te­ma­ti­cal­ly docu­men­ted the visi­ted com­mu­nities with his came­ra.

This collec­tion – con­sis­ting of cir­ca 11,000 pho­to­graphs, about 2,000 objec­ts, publi­ca­ti­ons and 7 dia­ries which were writ­ten by the rese­ar­cher during his jour­ney – is in the pos­ses­si­on of the Sta­te Eth­no­gra­phic Collec­tions of Sax­o­ny (SES). The major part of the objec­ts and pho­to­graphs were collec­ted during the researcher’s visit at dif­fe­rent indi­ge­nous com­mu­nities in India.

Whe­re­as the objec­ts and publi­ca­ti­ons have always been in the pos­ses­si­on of the SES, v. Eickstedt’s pho­to­graphs and dia­ries had been decla­red lost after World War II and were only dis­co­ve­r­ed after the death of the rese­ar­cher. In the year 2003 the pho­to­graphs and dia­ries were han­ded over to the SES to be pre­ser­ved and published. After more than half a deca­de the collec­tion is joi­ned by now and avail­ab­le for fur­ther rese­arch.

Some of the mate­ri­al has alrea­dy been published by scho­l­ars and a num­ber of small pro­jec­ts were con­duc­ted on the basis of the collec­tion. The long term aim is to make the collec­tion digi­tal­ly acces­si­ble to rese­ar­chers and other audi­en­ces.
The pho­to­graphs along with the collec­ted eth­no­gra­phic objec­ts, dia­ries and publi­ca­ti­ons pro­vi­de insights into v. Eickstedt’s scho­l­ar­ship and the way anthro­po­lo­gi­cal know­ledge was gathe­red in the ear­ly twen­tieth cen­tu­ry. V. Eickstedt’s metho­do­lo­gy is cer­tain­ly out­da­ted and ethi­cal­ly high­ly con­tro­ver­si­al but despi­te this, the collec­tion is an extre­me­ly valu­able source for rese­ar­chers as well as for indi­ge­nous peop­le them­sel­ves to recon­struct histo­ry, ear­ly rela­ti­ons and the pro­cess of Hin­dui­za­ti­on. Tog­e­ther with simi­lar collec­tions such as Chris­toph von Fürer-Hai­men­dorf (SOAS, Uni­ver­si­ty of Lon­don), and Wil­liam Archer (MAA, Cam­bridge Uni­ver­si­ty) the v. Eick­stedt collec­tion is one of the most com­pre­hen­si­ve docu­men­ta­ti­on of indi­ge­nous com­mu­nities in India. It fur­ther pres­ents uni­que mate­ri­al on the encoun­ter of Euro­pe with India.

 

Armin Grünbacher 

Dept. of Histo­ry, Uni­ver­si­ty of Bir­ming­ham, UK

German Conservatives, India and the Hallstein Doctrine. A document from the Chancellery

As a lea­ding coun­try of the Non-Ali­gned Move­ment, India was very eager, in par­ti­cu­lar during the 1960s, not to be pul­led under the influ­ence of eit­her East or West but to remain neu­tral in the wrang­le of the Cold War. For this rea­son it is some­what asto­nis­hing that India remai­ned on West Germany‘s side in regard to the ‘Ger­man Ques­ti­on‘, and offi­ci­al­ly accep­ted Adenauer’s claim of sole rep­re­sen­ta­ti­on and did not reco­gnise the GDR as a sover­eign sta­te.

In the files of the Federal Chan­cel­le­ry at the Bun­des­ar­chiv Koblenz, a report can be found, writ­ten in Janu­a­ry 1960 by Klaus Meh­nert, a con­ser­va­ti­ve jour­na­list broad­cas­ter and for­eign poli­cy com­men­ta­tor on a mee­ting he had with the Per­ma­nent Under­se­creta­ry of the Indian For­eign Office, S. Dutt. Meh­nert descri­bes parts of the one-hour mee­ting, in which Dutt spo­ke to him ’…as an Indian, not part of the Government…’ about the con­tra­dic­tions of Bonn’s poli­cy in regards to the GDR and hin­ted at India’s gro­wing incli­na­ti­on to reco­gnise the GDR.

The dis­cus­sion and in par­ti­cu­lar Mehnert’s reply to Dutt pro­vi­des an important indi­ca­ti­on of how, just three years after Yugo­s­la­via had reco­gnis­ed the GDR, Ade­nau­er and influ­en­ti­al West Ger­man con­ser­va­ti­ves tried to sustain the claim for sole rep­re­sen­ta­ti­on, in par­ti­cu­lar in regards to deve­lo­ping coun­tries.

Using files from the Chan­cel­le­ry, the archi­ves of the Aus­wär­ti­ges Amt and the Kre­dit­an­stalt für Wie­der­auf­bau (KfW) (as well as some docu­ments from the Thys­sen-Krupp archi­ve) this paper com­bi­nes a diplo­ma­tic and eco­no­mic histo­ry approach to exp­lain Mehnert’s and Adenauer’s posi­ti­on vis-a-vis India’s con­si­de­ra­ti­ons to reco­gnise the GDR and the con­se­quen­ces such a move would have had for Bonn’s for­eign poli­cy.

 

Chen Tzoref-Ashkenazi

Hei­del­berg

Archival Sources on the Hanoverian Regiments in India: The Niedersächsisches
Landesarchiv in Hanover

In 1782 two regi­ments of the army of Hano­ver were sent to India to help the East India Com­pa­ny in the Second Anglo-Mys­o­re War. The tro­ops, con­sis­ting of 2000 sol­di­ers, were the lar­gest orga­ni­zed group of Ger­mans who came to India in the eigh­te­enth cen­tu­ry. They took part in one major batt­le and various expe­di­ti­ons. After the war they ser­ved main­ly as gar­ri­son tro­ops until 1791, when they began to be sent home. While my recent work on the Hano­ve­r­i­an regi­ments focu­sed on their publi­ca­ti­ons, which inclu­ded tra­vel books and maga­zi­ne arti­cles, it also made use of archi­val mate­ri­als. Alt­hough the India Office Records holds important sources on the orga­ni­za­ti­on and recruit­ment of the­se regi­ments, by far the most important sources are tho­se held by the Nie­der­säch­si­sches Lan­des­ar­chiv in Hano­ver. This is espe­ci­al­ly the case for sources on the admi­nis­tra­ti­on of the regi­ments that would sup­ply inva­lu­able infor­ma­ti­on for mili­ta­ry and soci­al his­to­ri­ans. What this archi­ve lacks, on the other hand, is more per­so­nal sources such as pri­va­te let­ters and dia­ries, the kind of sources found in rela­ti­ve abundance for the almost con­tem­pora­ry expe­di­ti­on of Ger­man auxi­li­a­ry tro­ops to North Ame­ri­ca. My talk will dis­cuss the hol­dings and the gaps of the archi­ve and reflec­ts whe­re more per­so­nal sources could be loca­ted.

 

Vandana Joshi

Semi­nar für Süd­asi­en-Stu­di­en, Insti­tut für Asi­en- und Afri­ka­wis­sen­schaf­ten, Hum­bold­tUni­ver­si­tät zu Ber­lin

Between Erasure and Remembrance: Shreds from the Kriegsalltag of South Asian Faujis
(Sipahis) in Stammlagers, Arbeitskommandos, Lazaretts and Graves (1939–45)

My paper is based on the hol­dings of the Inter­na­tio­nal Tra­cing Ser­vice Archi­ve which com­pri­ses appro­xi­mate­ly 30 mil­li­on docu­ments on the incar­ce­ra­ti­on of for­eig­ners and mino­ri­ties in con­cen­tra­ti­on camps, ghet­tos and Gesta­po pri­sons, on forced labour and dis­pla­ced per­sons. The deter­mi­ning fac­tor in this round of my archi­val visit was the Allied Order of Decem­ber 6, 1945, which inst­ruc­ted all local and district aut­ho­ri­ties in Ger­ma­ny to con­duct exhaus­ti­ve sear­ches for all docu­ments and infor­ma­ti­on con­cer­ning mili­ta­ry and civi­li­an per­sons belon­ging to the United King­dom sin­ce 1939 and to sub­mit their fin­dings imme­dia­te­ly to the com­mand of their respec­tive occupa­ti­on forces. This order gene­ra­ted enor­mous evi­dence for the histo­ry of insti­tu­tio­nal remem­bran­ce. The collec­tion has brought into light fresh evi­dence that has so far not been uti­li­sed to eva­lua­te the pre­sence of South Asi­ans during WWII and will fun­da­ment­al­ly alter our under­stan­ding of their ever­y­day life in the Third Reich.

The evi­dence deals with the ascer­tai­ning, coun­ting, regis­tra­ti­on, and at times exhu­ma­ti­on of gra­ves. It con­tains lists of civi­li­ans and pri­soners of war-dead or ali­ve- from a host of Sta­lags and Arbeits­kom­man­dos, sick bays and resi­den­ti­al are­as. An over­whel­ming majo­ri­ty among the dead com­pri­sed South Asi­an Fau­jis who left the shores of their land to fight the war. A frac­tion of them ser­ved the Wehr­macht as a part of the Indian Legi­on and it is lar­ge­ly their pre­sence which has been noted in his­to­ri­cal accounts so far. The death records of the­se anony­mous Fau­jis demons­tra­te that they were con­temp­tuous­ly dum­ped in the backyards of towns such as Ans­bach, Fues­sen, Neu­stadt, Bischoef­gru­en, Berch­tes­ga­den, Gar­misch, Regens­burg, Laut­er­ho­fen, Wes­ter­tim­ke, San­t­ho­fen, Her­born, Darm­stadt, Bre­mer­vo­er­de, while a tiny mino­ri­ty secu­red a place in the local Fried­hofs . In any event, their mor­tal remains lay in dit­ches in a for­eign land that denied them any right to ritu­als of mour­ning and death that sol­di­ers con­ven­tio­nal­ly deser­ve. I also found sket­chy records from men­tal hos­pi­tals, sana­to­ri­ums, sick bays, and hos­pi­tals which some of them visi­ted befo­re dying. A signi­fi­cant num­ber of Fau­jis worked in Sta­lags and Arbeits­kom­man­dos as slave labour slog­ging 8 hours a day, 6 days a week until their libe­ra­ti­on in mid 1945.

The evi­dence that I have been able to unearth so far speaks volu­mes for the silence, gloom, neglect, con­de­scen­si­on, depres­si­on, and per­se­cu­ti­on that enve­lo­ped the ever­y­day life of the South Asi­an Fau­ji in WWII. Inherent in the natu­re of this know­ledge genera­ti­on was an ele­ment of com­pul­si­on ‘from above’ to report the dead, ali­ve or mis­sing per­sons, which per se denies the his­to­ri­an any pos­si­bi­li­ty of fin­ding sub­jec­tive expe­ri­en­ces of the­se sol­di­ers. The­re are no tes­ti­mo­nies, no let­ters, no effec­ts, no last wis­hes, let alo­ne dia­ries and other ego docu­ments in the­se hol­dings. The­re are no sto­ries of human con­tact, com­pas­si­on and empa­thy from ‘the other uni­ver­se’, inha­bi­ted by ordi­na­ry Ger­mans not very far from the­se sites. And yet they have left behind enough tan­gi­ble traces of their worka­day from several sites of work and death. I hope to sha­re some uns­po­ken words from the­se sites with my lis­teners in the MIDA con­fe­rence. 

 

Gregor M. Metzig

Insti­tut für Geschich­te der Uni­ver­si­tät Regens­burg

Alltag und Mission. Deutschsprachige Jesuiten im portugiesischen Weltreich (1616–1773)

Kaum eine ande­re Gemein­schaft hat die Geschich­te der katho­li­schen Mis­si­on welt­weit so nach­hal­tig geprägt wie die 1540 offi­zi­ell gegrün­de­te Socie­tas Jesu (SJ). Neue­re Stu­di­en legen nahe, dass das glo­ba­le Enga­ge­ment des Jesui­ten­or­dens jedoch mehr als bis­lang ange­nom­men durch die indi­vi­du­el­le Prä­gung sei­ner Mit­glie­der und der spe­zi­fi­schen Kräf­te­ver­hält­nis­se an ihrem Wir­kungs­ort bestimmt wur­de. Am Bei­spiel der aus der Assis­ten­tia Ger­ma­niae stam­men­den Ordens­an­ge­hö­ri­gen im por­tu­gie­si­schen Patro­nats­be­reich (padroado real) soll eine All­tags­ge­schich­te der Jesui­ten geschrie­ben wer­den. Sie zeigt in akteurs­zen­trier­ter Per­spek­ti­ve die Schwie­rig­kei­ten und Lern­pro­zes­se der Mis­sio­na­re im trans­kon­ti­nen­ta­len Ver­gleich zwi­schen den bei­den luso-ame­ri­ka­ni­schen Jesui­ten­pro­vin­zen im Estado do Bra­sil und in Maran­hão sowie den ver­streu­ten por­tu­gie­si­schen Besit­zun­gen rund um den Indi­schen Oze­an.

Obwohl der Ordens­grün­der Igna­ti­us von Loyo­la (1491–1556) bereits 1542 die ers­te über­see­ische Jesui­ten­pro­vinz in Indi­en eta­bliert hat­te, spiel­ten aus Mit­tel­eu­ro­pa stam­men­de Mis­sio­na­re dort erst seit dem 17. Jahr­hun­dert eine nen­nens­wer­te Rol­le. Der Vor­trag rückt den­noch bewusst die­se Min­der­heit inner­halb der Gesell­schaft Jesu in den Mit­tel­punkt der Betrach­tung. Der Grund hier­für liegt kei­nes­falls in irgend­ei­ner natio­nal begrün­de­ten Prä­fe­renz,  son­dern in ihrer beson­de­ren Rele­vanz im Hin­blick auf die zen­tra­le Fra­ge­stel­lung des Pro­jekts: einer All­tags­ge­schich­te der Jesui­ten in Über­see. Denn anders als etwa ihre por­tu­gie­si­schen Mit­brü­der ver­füg­ten die Mit­tel­eu­ro­pä­er als Aus­län­der zwangs­läu­fig über eine ande­re Per­spek­ti­ve auf das Leben in den por­tu­gie­si­schen Ter­ri­to­ri­en. So durch­lie­fen sie in den meis­ten Fäl­len eine mehr­fa­che Dif­fe­renz­erfah­rung, zunächst bei der Ein­rei­se in Por­tu­gal und der Erler­nung der dor­ti­gen Lan­des­spra­che, dann wäh­rend der häu­fig nur ober­fläch­lich erfolg­ten Inte­gra­ti­on in die luso­pho­ne Kolo­ni­al­ge­sell­schaft und schließ­lich beim Kon­takt mit den indi­ge­nen Kul­tu­ren. Wel­che beson­de­ren Ver­hal­tens­mus­ter leg­ten die Jesui­ten gegen­über den ver­schie­de­nen Bevöl­ke­rungs­grup­pen in den Kolo­ni­en an den Tag und wie gestal­te­te sich die Wahr­neh­mung des Frem­den im trans­kon­ti­nen­ta­len Ver­gleich? Die regio­nal über­lie­fer­te Kor­re­spon­denz der deutsch­spra­chi­gen Mis­sio­na­re mit ihren zu Hau­se geblie­be­nen Mit­brü­dern und Ange­hö­ri­gen in den ver­schie­de­nen Lan­des- und Fami­li­en­ar­chi­ven bezie­hungs­wei­se im Archiv der Deut­schen Pro­vinz SJ in Mün­chen oder im Archiv der Nord­deut­schen Pro­vinz SJ (Mün­chen, ehe­mals: Köln) birgt hier­für ein bis­lang noch kaum erschlos­se­nes Quel­len­po­ten­ti­al. Hin­zu kommt die offi­zi­el­le Bericht­erstat­tung der Ordens­ver­tre­ter an ihre Vor­ge­setz­ten sowie nicht zuletzt die von ihnen selbst ver­fass­ten Schrif­ten und Trak­ta­te. Mit ihnen erreich­ten die Mis­sio­na­re ein weit über die katho­li­sche Stamm­le­ser­schaft hin­aus­rei­chen­des Publi­kum und tru­gen damit wesent­lich zum Wan­del des vor­han­de­nen Welt­bil­des im Zeit­al­ter der Auf­klä­rung bei.

 

Mrinalini Sebastian

The Other Story of Indology: European Missionaries and the Global Journeys of Vernacular Knowledge

Ger­man-speaking scho­l­ars have play­ed an important role in crea­ting and sustai­ning inte­rest in the field of Indo­lo­gi­cal Stu­dies. During the 19th cen­tu­ry, at the peak of Ger­man inte­rest in India-rela­ted mate­ri­al, anti­qui­ty and Sans­krit were the the­mes that domi­na­ted scho­l­ar­ship in the field of Indo­lo­gy. This paper will try to make a case for ano­t­her sto­ry of Indo­lo­gy, which is less Sans­krit-ori­en­ted, and less obses­sed with the noti­on of anti­qui­ty. This other sto­ry of Indo­lo­gy begins in the ear­ly modern peri­od when European Catho­lic and Pro­tes­tant mis­sio­na­ries came to the Indian sub-con­ti­nent main­ly in order to evan­ge­li­ze and spread the mes­sa­ge of Christ, but were drawn into unan­ti­ci­pa­ted nego­tia­ti­ons with their imme­dia­te con­texts, resul­ting in know­ledge exchan­ge, know­ledge inter­pre­ta­ti­on, and know­ledge media­ti­on. This other sto­ry of Indo­lo­gy is less about a pan-Indian cul­tu­re but more about ver­na­cu­lar know­ledge, that is, know­ledge that is nati­ve to a spe­ci­fic regi­on of the sub­con­ti­nent. The mis­sio­na­ry-media­ted cir­cu­la­ti­on of ver­na­cu­lar know­ledge shaped several fields of inqui­ry in mul­ti-direc­tio­n­al ways. One such field is the are­na of bota­ni­cal stu­dies, and ano­t­her, that of lin­gu­is­tics and lan­guage stu­dies.

This paper will track the way European tra­ders and mis­sio­na­ries enga­ged South Indian prac­ti­cal and tex­tu­al know­ledge about the medi­ci­nal use of local plants, and sought to make this know­ledge avail­ab­le to Euro­pe through a net­work of indi­vi­du­als, insti­tu­ti­ons and publi­ca­ti­ons. For examp­le, the begin­nings of the fasci­na­ti­on for the medi­ci­nal plants of South India can be found in a very ear­ly docu­ment cal­led Viri­da­ri­um Ori­en­ta­le, put tog­e­ther by a Dis­cal­ced Car­me­li­te Monk cal­led Mat­thew of St Joseph (1612–1691) during the second half of the 17th cen­tu­ry. Mat­thew of St Joseph then beca­me an important col­la­bo­ra­tor of the high-ran­king Dutch East India Com­pa­ny (VOC) offi­cer Hen­drik Adria­an van Ree­de tot Dra­ken­stein (1636–1691) and Reede’s team of co-workers (that inclu­ded a local Ezha­va doc­tor, Itty Achu­dem, and three Pan­dits, Dutch bota­nists, illus­tra­tors, and local hel­pers) in the ear­ly sta­ges of the publi­ca­ti­on of the magni­ficent 12-volu­me illus­tra­ted book cal­led Hor­tus Indi­cus Mala­ba­ri­cus (1678–1703). This book not only influ­en­ced bota­nists such as Carl von Lin­naeus (1707–1778), but also the Pro­tes­tant mis­sio­na­ries from Hal­le.

It is the objec­tive of this paper to track the glo­bal cir­cu­la­ti­on of indi­ge­nous bota­ni­cal know­ledge, and to fol­low its unan­ti­ci­pa­ted jour­neys from South India to Euro­pe; from Euro­pe back to India; from the past to the pre­sent. Many of the­se jour­neys were faci­li­ta­ted by the scho­l­ar­ly work of the Ger­ma­no­pho­ne mis­sio­na­ries. Its return was enab­led by scho­l­ars and pedago­gues who worked in the field of Bota­ny. In fact, tracking the cir­cu­la­ti­on of ver­na­cu­lar know­ledge could help us get at the genea­lo­gy of ano­t­her text­book by ano­t­her mis­sio­na­ry at ano­t­her time, Glim­p­ses into the Life of Indian Plants: An Ele­men­ta­ry Indian Bota­ny (Man­ga­lo­re 1908), by the Basel Mis­si­on mis­sio­na­ry Imma­nu­el Pflei­de­rer (1872–1949).

The paper hopes to pre­sent this case stu­dy of mis­sio­na­ry-media­ted intel­lec­tu­al inter­ven­ti­ons in the field of Bota­ny in order to sug­gest that wri­ting a con­nec­ted histo­ry of the forays of the mis­sio­na­ries into various bran­ches of ver­na­cu­lar know­ledge, could offer us fasci­na­ting insights into the mutual­ly depen­dent net­works of con­tac­ts, con­nec­tions, and com­mu­ni­ca­ti­ons estab­lished during the ear­ly modern peri­od. I am par­ti­cu­lar­ly inte­rested in under­stan­ding the intel­lec­tu­al genea­lo­gy of the 19th cen­tu­ry Basel Mis­si­on scho­l­ar­mis­sio­na­ries in this world wide web of con­nec­tions and net­works.

 

Keyvan Djahangiri

Semi­nar für Süd­asi­en-Stu­di­en, Insti­tut für Asi­en- und Afri­ka­wis­sen­schaf­ten, Hum­bold­tUni­ver­si­tät zu Ber­lin

Centres of Calculation’ or Dead End? Early Modern Material on ‘India’ in German Archives

By using the examp­le of the Francke Foundation’s India Mis­si­on Archi­ve in Hal­le Sax­on­y­An­halt), my paper deals in two sepa­ra­te but inter­de­pen­dent sec­tions with the the­ma­tic of Modern India in Ger­man Archi­ves (MIDA). The first addres­ses a num­ber of hypo­the­ti­cal ques­ti­ons on ‘India’ as the topic of infor­ma­ti­on and know­ledge (1). I will demons­tra­te in the second part methods and per­spec­tives of Ger­man archi­val stu­dies on ‘India’ (2). The paper’s over­all inten­ti­on is to con­tri­bu­te to the dis­cus­sions on how oppor­tu­nities and future trends may be set and uti­li­sed on MIDA’s long-term rese­arch aspect.

1   Ger­man Archi­ves may inde­ed unfold rese­arch poten­ti­al in order to revi­sit wes­tern Indo­lo­gy, which has been hither­to domi­na­ted by Bri­tish-rela­ted aca­de­mia. In com­pli­an­ce with Bru­no Latour’s ‘Cen­tres of Cal­cu­la­ti­on’, I refer both to unpu­blished and edi­ted ear­ly modern archi­val mate­ri­al from the Francke Foun­da­ti­on to dis­cuss the fol­lo­wing emer­ging questions.[1] Do we wit­ness Ger­man-speaking ‘Cen­tres of Cal­cu­la­ti­on’ in Hal­le, whe­re infor­ma­ti­on is accu­mu­la­ted, cir­cu­la­ted and mana­ged on ‘India’, and if so, how? Do the­se Cen­tres con­stant­ly (re-)produce ima­gi­ned, trans­mit­ted, and mate­ria­li­zed topics of know­ledge? Or are we rather con­fron­ted with stan­dar­di­sa­ti­on pro­ce­du­res of infor­ma­ti­on that led to a sta­tic and inst­ruc­tive dead end of know­ledge?

2   Having set the­se pro­blems forth for fur­ther dis­cus­sions, I would like to pre­sent a few aspec­ts of my own rese­arch on working on ‘India’ in Ger­man archi­ves. This also inclu­des the ope­ra­ting expe­ri­ence with the online search engi­ne of the Francke Foundation’s Archi­ve. The search engi­ne not only helps to loca­li­se the archi­val mate­ri­al, but also enhan­ces – through the inter­con­nec­tion of names, dates, pro­ve­ni­en­ces, and key­words – the epis­te­mo­lo­gi­cal approach of Digi­tal Huma­nities. This might be use­ful for MIDA’s agen­da of rep­re­sen­ting and dis­se­mi­na­ting the histo­ry of Indo-Ger­man ent­an­gle­ments.

[1] The ‘Cen­tres of Cal­cu­la­ti­on’ is a cent­re-peri­phe­ry-ori­en­ted con­cept by the French socio­lo­gist Bru­no Latour on how docu­ments are mana­ged as net­work-gene­ra­ted ‘immu­ta­ble and com­bin­ab­le mobi­les’ and which explo­res their part on the pro­duc­tion of know­ledge; vid. Latour, B. 1987. Sci­ence in Action. How to Fol­low Sci­en­tists and Engi­neers through Socie­ty. Cam­bridge (MA): Har­vard Uni­ver­si­ty Press, 215–257, esp. 227.

 

Britta Klosterberg

Stu­di­en­zen­trum August Her­mann Francke, Hal­le

Die Quellen zur Dänisch-Halleschen Mission im Archiv der Franckeschen Stiftungen

Die im Jahr 1706 begrün­de­te Dänisch-Hal­le­sche Mis­si­on ist die ers­te orga­ni­sier­te Mis­si­ons­un­ter­neh­mung in der pro­tes­tan­ti­schen Kir­chen­ge­schich­te. Der über­wie­gen­de Teil der Quel­len wird heu­te im Archiv der Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen zu Hal­le auf­be­wahrt. Seit 2006 befin­det sich auch das ursprüng­lich von den Mis­sio­na­ren in Tran­que­bar ange­leg­te, Ende des 19. Jahr­hun­derts vom Evan­ge­lisch Luthe­ri­schen Mis­si­ons­werk in Leip­zig über­nom­me­ne Archiv als Depo­si­tum in den Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen. Der Über­lie­fe­rungs­zeit­raum erstreckt sich vom frü­hen 18. Jahr­hun­dert bis in das ers­te Drit­tel des 19. Jahr­hun­derts. Der Umfang des Gesamt­be­stands beträgt mehr als 34 000 Doku­men­te. Die­se Doku­men­te sind im Rah­men eines DFG-Pro­jekts for­mal und inhalt­lich erschlos­sen und auf der Web­site der Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen in einer deut­schen und in einer eng­li­schen Fas­sung zugäng­lich. Im Rah­men der Mis­si­ons­ar­beit gelang­ten auch Manu­skrip­te in Tamil und Telugu nach Hal­le. Ein Groß­teil die­ser Manu­skrip­te befin­det sich in der Palm­blatt­hand­schrif­ten­samm­lung des Archivs. Der Kata­log der Tamil-Manu­skrip­te kann eben­falls über die Web­site auf­ge­ru­fen wer­den; ein Kata­log der Manu­skrip­te in Telugu ist in Vor­be­rei­tung. Die­se Quel­len wer­den ergänzt durch die Bestän­de in der Biblio­thek der Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen. Dar­un­ter zäh­len die sog. „Hal­le­schen Berich­te“, die ers­te pro­tes­tan­ti­sche Mis­si­ons­zeit­schrift, die digi­tal auf­be­rei­tet und in einer Daten­bank erschlos­sen wor­den ist und wie­der­um Ver­wei­se auf die Quel­len aus dem Archiv ent­hält.

In dem Vor­trag sol­len die Bestän­de, ihre Erschlie­ßung und Prä­sen­ta­ti­on auf der Web­site der Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen vor­ge­stellt sowie neue Recher­che­mög­lich­kei­ten durch das im Auf­bau befind­li­che „Francke-Por­tal“ auf­ge­zeigt wer­den. Zugleich sol­len Desi­de­ra­ta für die wei­te­re, ver­tief­te Erschlie­ßung und Erfor­schung der Bestän­de zur Dänisch-Hal­le­schen Mis­si­on bzw. Dänisch-Eng­lisch-Hal­le­schen Mis­si­on benannt und zur Dis­kus­si­on gestellt wer­den.

 

Ajay Bharadwaj, Anne Murphy, Raghavendra Rao Karkala Vasudevaiah

Depart­ment of Asi­an Stu­dies, The Uni­ver­si­ty of Bri­tish Colum­bia, Van­cou­ver

Ajay Bhard­waj (docu­men­ta­ry filmma­ker and Ph.D. stu­dent, Uni­ver­si­ty of Bri­tish Colum­bia);
Anne Mur­phy (Asso­cia­te Pro­fes­sor, Depart­ment of Asi­an Stu­dies, Uni­ver­si­ty of Bri­tish
Colum­bia); and Rag­ha­ven­dra Rao K.V. (visu­al artist and facul­ty, Srish­ti School of Art, Design,
and Tech­no­lo­gy)

Early films/images in and about India: The German Lens”

In the 1920s, as Carl-Erd­mann Schon­feld has noted, the­re were many Ger­mans inte­rested in India: this was inde­ed the peri­od of Her­man Hesse’s Sid­dhar­tha. Films such as Osten’s series of films on India (“The Light of India” (1926), “Shiraz” (1928), and “Throw of Dice” (1929)) and Richard Eichberg’s “The Indian Tomb” (1938) and “The Tiger of Eschna­pur” (1938), and others, demons­tra­te the Ger­man cine­ma­tic inte­rest in India, eth­no­gra­phic as well as nar­ra­ti­ve (and com­mer­ci­al). Ger­man pro­duc­tion know­ledge, equip­ment, and skill in turn pro­found­ly impac­ted the ear­ly years of Indian film pro­duc­tion.

What is hid­den in the Ger­man archi­ves of foo­ta­ge and infor­ma­ti­on about such film projects?What would it mean to exami­ne such ear­ly fil­mic rep­re­sen­ta­ti­ons of/in/about India, and relo­ca­te our under­stan­ding of the enga­ge­ment of Euro­pe with India from a broa­der per­spec­tive, out­si­de of the lens of direct colo­ni­al domi­na­ti­on that has cha­rac­te­ri­zed Bri­tish know­ledge of India, as Shel­don Pol­lock has alrea­dy sug­gested (1993; see fur­ther dis­cus­sion in Adlu­ri 2011 and Halb­fass 1988).

The goal of our enga­ge­ment with the Ger­man archi­ves along the­se lines is to pro­du­ce scho­l­ar­ly know­ledge, but also–as far as possible–forms of cul­tu­ral pro­duc­tion, through fil­mic and artis­tic prac­tice, incor­po­ra­ting both film and still images in an under­stan­ding of the Ger­man “eye” in the ima­gi­na­ti­on of India.

 

Debjani Bhattacharyya

Depart­ment of Histo­ry and Poli­tics, Dre­x­el Uni­ver­si­ty, Phil­adel­phia

The Influence of German Town Planning in British India: Tracing the Heritage of Lex Adikes

This paper will explo­re the glo­bal cir­cu­la­ti­on of Lex Adi­kes, a law deve­lo­ped by Dr. Franz Adi­kes as mayor of Frank­furt (1890–1912), [2] trans­la­ted into Eng­lish for the first time by a Bri­tish civil ser­vant in Bom­bay Mr. E. G. Tur­ner. This trans­la­ti­on was necessa­ry for framing land-dis­tri­bu­ti­on laws during ear­ly infra­st­ruc­tu­ral ven­tures in sub­ur­ban plan­ning begin­ning, first, in 1909 with the Bom­bay Impro­ve­ment Trust and, later, with the Cal­cut­ta Impro­ve­ment Trust from1911. Valued for its cost- effec­tiveness in nego­tia­ting pri­va­te pro­per­ty, public uti­li­ty and emi­nent domain issu­es, the Lex Adi­kes was suc­cess­ful­ly imple­men­ted in the­se cities, as a way to cir­cum­vent the more cum­ber­so­me and expen­si­ve opti­ons detail­ed in the Land Acqui­si­ti­on Act of 1894. Adi­kes’ phra­se, ‘[t]he fore­se­en needs of the near future,’ beca­me a cen­tral princip­le in struc­tu­ring town “deve­lop­ment,” mar­king, for the first time, the cal­cu­la­ti­on of future cost-bene­fits in muni­ci­pal eco­no­mic thin­king in Bri­tish India and the unf­ur­ling of a deve­lop­men­tal regime.[3]

The cir­cu­la­ti­on of know­ledge bet­ween Ger­ma­ny and Britain’s eas­tern colo­ny is hard­ly unknown, alt­hough insuf­fi­ci­ent­ly docu­men­ted. While recent works have begun to chart the cir­cuits of medi­cal and tech­no­lo­gi­cal infor­ma­ti­on, ent­an­gle­ments of poli­ti­cal ide­as and knot­ted intel­lec­tu­al his­to­ries, much less has been rese­ar­ched about the trans­fers of bureau­cra­tic know­ledge at the level of muni­ci­pa­li­ties bet­ween town-plan­ners in Ger­ma­ny, Bri­tish offi­ci­als in the pre­si­den­cy towns, and Indian urba­nists. This paper, gro­wing out of my book manu­script on the histo­ry of urban housing and the pro­per­ty mar­ket in colo­ni­al Cal­cut­ta, will attempt to map the trans­la­ti­on of Ger­man town-plan­ning ide­as into 20th cen­tu­ry muni­ci­pal reor­ga­ni­za­ti­on of the sub­urbs of Cal­cut­ta.

The pre­sence of Ger­man know­ledge wit­hin muni­ci­pal ven­tures can be attested to by the easy avai­la­bi­li­ty of Ger­man texts on town plans, muni­ci­pal laws, Prus­si­an zoning laws, as well as trans­la­ti­ons, such as B. W. Kissan’s, I.C.S Report on Town-plan­ning Enac­t­ments in Ger­ma­ny, in the ear­ly 20th cen­tu­ry libra­ry records of the Cal­cut­ta Muni­ci­pal Libra­ry. In this paper I will del­ve into Bri­tish Engi­neer E. P. Richards’ first com­pre­hen­si­ve town plan­ning report for Cal­cut­ta published in 1914, which has been read as the first sys­te­ma­tic attempt to trans­la­te colo­ni­al town-plan­ning ide­as to Cal­cut­ta (Dut­ta 2013, Har­ris and Lewis, 2014). As my paper will demons­tra­te, Richards’ report did not only build upon Eng­lish town plan­ning laws, but much more on Ger­man sources. Going bey­ond Eng­land, he com­pa­res Cal­cut­ta to other European cities, as a means of fore­groun­ding the pos­si­ble bene­fits of fol­lo­wing Ger­man zoning, housing and land dis­tri­bu­ti­on laws and stres­sing the impor­t­an­ce of app­ly­ing Lex Adi­kes in Cal­cut­ta, which E. G. Tur­ner was suc­cess­ful­ly app­ly­ing in Bom­bay.

To con­clu­de, my paper’s his­to­ri­cal exca­va­ti­on into the con­tact zones of bureau­cra­tic know­ledge sys­tems about town plan­ning in Bri­tish India and Ger­ma­ny seeks to achie­ve two things: First, it shifts the focus away from epi­de­mio­lo­gy and sani­ta­ri­an dri­ves born out of the Oxbridge world of moral Chris­tia­ni­ty and Natu­ral Theo­lo­gy of Wil­liam Paley that has been one of the orga­ni­zing lens to view town plan­ning ven­tures in colo­ni­al Cal­cut­ta (Chat­topad­hyay, 2005; Pan­de 2010; Dat­ta, 2013). Second, the­se sources offer a glim­p­se into a world of sha­red know­ledge sys­tems wit­hin muni­ci­pal admi­nis­tra­ti­on, some­thing that has been also noted in ear­ly Bri­tish forest con­ser­va­ti­on poli­ci­es. By tur­ning to the­se exch­an­ges I hope to trace a par­al­lel but non-colo­ni­al genea­lo­gy of the 20th-cen­tu­ry deve­lop­men­tal sta­te, and the role play­ed by Ger­man muni­ci­pal ide­as in sha­ping some of the prac­tices of modern bureau­cra­tic sta­te for­ma­ti­on in India.

[2] Also known as Gesetz betr. die Umle­gung von Grund­stü­cken in Frank­furt a. M, 1899.

[3] This phra­se has been attri­bu­t­ed to Dr. Franz Adi­kes in both Bom­bay and Cal­cut­ta Impro­ve­ment Trust Reports, howe­ver I am yet to veri­fy it.