Date: Janu­ary, 30 – 31, 2015. 

Orga­nis­ed by:

  • Prof. Dr. Ravi Ahu­ja, Uni­ver­si­tät Göt­tin­gen, Cent­re for Modern Indi­an Stu­dies (CeMIS)
  • Dr. Hei­ke Liebau, Zen­trum Moder­ner Ori­ent (ZMO) Berlin
  • Prof. Dr. Micha­el Mann, Hum­boldt-Uni­ver­si­tät zu Ber­lin, Insti­tut für Asi­en- und Afri­ka­wis­sen­schaf­ten (IAAW)

Down­load the pro­gram­me as PDF.


Friday, 30.01.2015

09.30 – 09.45 Micha­el Mann, Berlin
9.45 – 10.30 Ravi Ahu­ja, Göttingen
Intro­du­cing MIDA
10.30 – 12.30
Panel 1 – Moderation: Ravi Ahuja
10.30 – 11.15 Lydia Hauth, Leip­zig [P] A Ger­man Rese­ar­cher in India – Egon von Eickstedt‚s Coll­ec­tion at the Sta­te Eth­no­gra­phic Coll­ec­tions of Saxony
11.15 – 11.45 Cof­fee Break
11.30 – 12.30 Jahn­avi Phal­key, Lon­don [P]

12.30 – 15.00

Panel 2 – Moderation: Martin Christof-Füchsle
12.30 – 13.15 Adam Jones, Leip­zig [R]
14.15 – 15.00 Armin Grün­ba­cher, Bir­ming­ham [P] Ger­man Con­ser­va­ti­ves, India and the Hall­stein Doc­tri­ne. A docu­ment from the Chancellery
15.00 – 17.00
Panel 3 – Moderation: Anandita Bajpai
15.00 – 15.45 Chen Tzo­ref-Ash­ke­n­a­zi, Ber­lin [P] Archi­val Sources on the Hano­ver­i­an Regi­ments in India: The Nie­der­säch­si­sches Lan­des­ar­chiv in Hanover
15.45 – 16.15 Cof­fee Break
16.15 – 17.00 Van­da­na Joshi, Ber­lin [P] Bet­ween Era­su­re and Remem­brance: Shreds from the Kriegs­all­tag of South Asi­an Fau­jis (Sipahis) in Stamm­la­gern, Arbeits­kom­man­dos, Laza­ret­ten and Gra­ves (1939–45)
17.00 – 18.30
Panel 4 – Moderation: Anandita Bajpai
17.00 – 17.45 Joa­chim Oes­ter­held, Ber­lin [R]
17.45 – 18.30 Georg Met­zig (Regens­burg) [P] All­tag und Mis­si­on. Deutsch­spra­chi­ge Jesui­ten im por­tu­gie­si­schen Welt­reich (1616–1773)

Saturday, 31.01.2015

9.00 – 10.30
Panel 5 – Moderation: Anna Sailer
9.00 – 9.45 Mri­nal­ini Sebas­ti­an, Phil­adel­phia [P] The Other Sto­ry of Indo­lo­gy: Euro­pean Mis­sio­na­ries and the Glo­bal Jour­neys of Ver­na­cu­lar Knowledge
9.45 – 10.30 Diet­helm Wei­de­mann, Ber­lin [R]
10.30 – 11.00 Cof­fee Break
11.00 – 12.30
Panel 6 – Moderation: Heike Liebau
11.00 – 11.45 Key­van Dja­h­an­gi­ri, Ber­lin [P] ‘Cen­tres of Cal­cu­la­ti­on’ or Dead End? Ear­ly Modern Mate­ri­al on ‘India’ in Ger­man Archives
11.45 – 12.30 Brit­ta Klos­ter­berg, Hal­le [P] Die Quel­len zur Dänisch-Hal­le­schen Mis­si­on im Archiv der Fran­cke­schen Stiftungen
12.30 – 13.30 Lunch Break
13.30 – 15.30
Panel 7 – Moderation: Michael Mann
13.30 – 14.15 Ajay Bha­ra­d­waj, Rag­ha­ven­dra Rao Karka­la Vasu­de­vai­ah and Anne Mur­phy, Van­cou­ver [P] Ear­ly films/images in and about India: The Ger­man Lens
14.15 – 15.30 Debja­ni Bhat­tacha­ry­ya, Phil­ade­phia [P] The Influence of Ger­man Town Plan­ning in Bri­tish India: Tra­cing the Heri­ta­ge of Lex Adikes
15.30 – 16.00 Cof­fee Break
16.00 – 17.00
Panel 8 – Moderation Heike Liebau
17.00 – 17.15 Frank Drausch­ke, Ber­lin [R]
17.15 – 18.00 Hei­ke Liebau, Berlin
Round table dis­cus­sion: Whe­re do we go from here?


Lydia Hauth 

Staat­li­che Eth­no­gra­phi­sche Samm­lun­gen Sach­sen (SES) / Staat­li­che Kunst­samm­lun­gen Dres­den (SKD))

A German Researcher in India – Egon von Eickstedt’s Collection at the State Ethnographic Collections of Saxony

In 1926 Egon von Eick­stedt, a Ger­man phy­si­cal anthro­po­lo­gist, was sent out on a 2 years expe­di­ti­on to India by the Muse­um of Eth­no­gra­phy, Leip­zig and the Sta­te Rese­arch Insti­tu­te for Eth­no­lo­gy in Leip­zig in order to recon­s­truct the histo­ry of ear­ly sett­le­ment in South Asia. During the expe­di­ti­on he coll­ec­ted anthro­po­lo­gi­cal data and eth­no­gra­phic objects and sys­te­ma­ti­cal­ly docu­men­ted the visi­ted com­mu­ni­ties with his camera.

This coll­ec­tion – con­sis­ting of cir­ca 11,000 pho­to­graphs, about 2,000 objects, publi­ca­ti­ons and 7 dia­ries which were writ­ten by the rese­ar­cher during his jour­ney – is in the pos­ses­si­on of the Sta­te Eth­no­gra­phic Coll­ec­tions of Sax­o­ny (SES). The major part of the objects and pho­to­graphs were coll­ec­ted during the researcher’s visit at dif­fe­rent indi­ge­nous com­mu­ni­ties in India.

Whe­re­as the objects and publi­ca­ti­ons have always been in the pos­ses­si­on of the SES, v. Eickstedt’s pho­to­graphs and dia­ries had been declared lost after World War II and were only dis­co­ver­ed after the death of the rese­ar­cher. In the year 2003 the pho­to­graphs and dia­ries were han­ded over to the SES to be pre­ser­ved and published. After more than half a deca­de the coll­ec­tion is joi­n­ed by now and available for fur­ther research.

Some of the mate­ri­al has alre­a­dy been published by scho­lars and a num­ber of small pro­jects were con­duc­ted on the basis of the coll­ec­tion. The long term aim is to make the coll­ec­tion digi­tal­ly acces­si­ble to rese­ar­chers and other audiences.
The pho­to­graphs along with the coll­ec­ted eth­no­gra­phic objects, dia­ries and publi­ca­ti­ons pro­vi­de insights into v. Eickstedt’s scho­lar­ship and the way anthro­po­lo­gi­cal know­ledge was gathe­red in the ear­ly twen­tieth cen­tu­ry. V. Eickstedt’s metho­do­lo­gy is cer­tain­ly out­da­ted and ethi­cal­ly high­ly con­tro­ver­si­al but despi­te this, the coll­ec­tion is an extre­me­ly valuable source for rese­ar­chers as well as for indi­ge­nous peo­p­le them­sel­ves to recon­s­truct histo­ry, ear­ly rela­ti­ons and the pro­cess of Hin­duiza­ti­on. Tog­e­ther with simi­lar coll­ec­tions such as Chris­toph von Fürer-Hai­men­dorf (SOAS, Uni­ver­si­ty of Lon­don), and Wil­liam Archer (MAA, Cam­bridge Uni­ver­si­ty) the v. Eick­stedt coll­ec­tion is one of the most com­pre­hen­si­ve docu­men­ta­ti­on of indi­ge­nous com­mu­ni­ties in India. It fur­ther pres­ents uni­que mate­ri­al on the encoun­ter of Euro­pe with India.


Armin Grünbacher 

Dept. of Histo­ry, Uni­ver­si­ty of Bir­ming­ham, UK

German Conservatives, India and the Hallstein Doctrine. A document from the Chancellery

As a lea­ding coun­try of the Non-Ali­gned Move­ment, India was very eager, in par­ti­cu­lar during the 1960s, not to be pul­led under the influence of eit­her East or West but to remain neu­tral in the wrang­le of the Cold War. For this reason it is some­what asto­nis­hing that India remain­ed on West Germany‘s side in regard to the ‘Ger­man Ques­ti­on‘, and offi­ci­al­ly accept­ed Adenauer’s cla­im of sole repre­sen­ta­ti­on and did not reco­g­ni­se the GDR as a sove­reign state.

In the files of the Fede­ral Chan­cel­lery at the Bun­des­ar­chiv Koblenz, a report can be found, writ­ten in Janu­ary 1960 by Klaus Meh­nert, a con­ser­va­ti­ve jour­na­list broad­cas­ter and for­eign poli­cy com­men­ta­tor on a mee­ting he had with the Per­ma­nent Under­se­cre­ta­ry of the Indi­an For­eign Office, S. Dutt. Meh­nert descri­bes parts of the one-hour mee­ting, in which Dutt spo­ke to him ’…as an Indi­an, not part of the Govern­ment…’ about the con­tra­dic­tions of Bonn’s poli­cy in regards to the GDR and hin­ted at India’s gro­wing incli­na­ti­on to reco­g­ni­se the GDR.

The dis­cus­sion and in par­ti­cu­lar Mehnert’s rep­ly to Dutt pro­vi­des an important indi­ca­ti­on of how, just three years after Yugo­sla­via had reco­g­nis­ed the GDR, Ade­nau­er and influ­en­ti­al West Ger­man con­ser­va­ti­ves tried to sus­tain the cla­im for sole repre­sen­ta­ti­on, in par­ti­cu­lar in regards to deve­lo­ping countries.

Using files from the Chan­cel­lery, the archi­ves of the Aus­wär­ti­ges Amt and the Kre­dit­an­stalt für Wie­der­auf­bau (KfW) (as well as some docu­ments from the Thys­sen-Krupp archi­ve) this paper com­bi­nes a diplo­ma­tic and eco­no­mic histo­ry approach to explain Mehnert’s and Adenauer’s posi­ti­on vis-a-vis India’s con­side­ra­ti­ons to reco­g­ni­se the GDR and the con­se­quen­ces such a move would have had for Bonn’s for­eign policy.


Chen Tzoref-Ashkenazi


Archival Sources on the Hanoverian Regiments in India: The Niedersächsisches
Landesarchiv in Hanover

In 1782 two regi­ments of the army of Hano­ver were sent to India to help the East India Com­pa­ny in the Second Ang­lo-Myso­re War. The tro­ops, con­sis­ting of 2000 sol­diers, were the lar­gest orga­ni­zed group of Ger­mans who came to India in the eigh­te­enth cen­tu­ry. They took part in one major batt­le and various expe­di­ti­ons. After the war they ser­ved main­ly as gar­ri­son tro­ops until 1791, when they began to be sent home. While my recent work on the Hano­ver­i­an regi­ments focu­sed on their publi­ca­ti­ons, which included tra­vel books and maga­zi­ne artic­les, it also made use of archi­val mate­ri­als. Alt­hough the India Office Records holds important sources on the orga­niza­ti­on and recruit­ment of the­se regi­ments, by far the most important sources are tho­se held by the Nie­der­säch­si­sches Lan­des­ar­chiv in Hano­ver. This is espe­ci­al­ly the case for sources on the admi­nis­tra­ti­on of the regi­ments that would sup­p­ly inva­luable infor­ma­ti­on for mili­ta­ry and social his­to­ri­ans. What this archi­ve lacks, on the other hand, is more per­so­nal sources such as pri­va­te let­ters and dia­ries, the kind of sources found in rela­ti­ve abun­dance for the almost con­tem­po­ra­ry expe­di­ti­on of Ger­man auxi­lia­ry tro­ops to North Ame­ri­ca. My talk will dis­cuss the hol­dings and the gaps of the archi­ve and reflects whe­re more per­so­nal sources could be located.


Vandana Joshi

Semi­nar für Süd­asi­en-Stu­di­en, Insti­tut für Asi­en- und Afri­ka­wis­sen­schaf­ten, Hum­boldt­Uni­ver­si­tät zu Berlin

Between Erasure and Remembrance: Shreds from the Kriegsalltag of South Asian Faujis
(Sipahis) in Stammlagers, Arbeitskommandos, Lazaretts and Graves (1939–45)

My paper is based on the hol­dings of the Inter­na­tio­nal Tra­cing Ser­vice Archi­ve which com­pri­ses appro­xi­m­ate­ly 30 mil­li­on docu­ments on the inc­ar­ce­ra­ti­on of for­eig­ners and mino­ri­ties in con­cen­tra­ti­on camps, ghet­tos and Gesta­po pri­sons, on forced labour and dis­pla­ced per­sons. The deter­mi­ning fac­tor in this round of my archi­val visit was the Allied Order of Decem­ber 6, 1945, which ins­truc­ted all local and dis­trict aut­ho­ri­ties in Ger­ma­ny to con­duct exhaus­ti­ve sear­ches for all docu­ments and infor­ma­ti­on con­cer­ning mili­ta­ry and civi­li­an per­sons belon­ging to the United King­dom sin­ce 1939 and to sub­mit their fin­dings imme­dia­te­ly to the com­mand of their respec­ti­ve occu­pa­ti­on forces. This order gene­ra­ted enorm­ous evi­dence for the histo­ry of insti­tu­tio­nal remem­brance. The coll­ec­tion has brought into light fresh evi­dence that has so far not been uti­li­sed to eva­lua­te the pre­sence of South Asi­ans during WWII and will fun­da­men­tal­ly alter our under­stan­ding of their ever­y­day life in the Third Reich.

The evi­dence deals with the ascer­tai­ning, coun­ting, regis­tra­ti­on, and at times exhu­ma­ti­on of gra­ves. It con­ta­ins lists of civi­li­ans and pri­soners of war-dead or ali­ve- from a host of Sta­lags and Arbeits­kom­man­dos, sick bays and resi­den­ti­al are­as. An over­whel­ming majo­ri­ty among the dead com­pri­sed South Asi­an Fau­jis who left the shores of their land to fight the war. A frac­tion of them ser­ved the Wehr­macht as a part of the Indi­an Legi­on and it is lar­ge­ly their pre­sence which has been noted in his­to­ri­cal accounts so far. The death records of the­se anony­mous Fau­jis demons­tra­te that they were con­temp­tuous­ly dum­ped in the back­yards of towns such as Ans­bach, Fues­sen, Neu­stadt, Bischoef­gruen, Berch­tes­ga­den, Gar­misch, Regens­burg, Lau­ter­ho­fen, Wes­ter­tim­ke, San­t­ho­fen, Her­born, Darm­stadt, Bre­mer­voer­de, while a tiny mino­ri­ty secu­red a place in the local Fried­hofs . In any event, their mor­tal remains lay in dit­ches in a for­eign land that denied them any right to ritu­als of mour­ning and death that sol­diers con­ven­tio­nal­ly deser­ve. I also found sket­chy records from men­tal hos­pi­tals, sana­to­ri­ums, sick bays, and hos­pi­tals which some of them visi­ted befo­re dying. A signi­fi­cant num­ber of Fau­jis work­ed in Sta­lags and Arbeits­kom­man­dos as slave labour slog­ging 8 hours a day, 6 days a week until their libe­ra­ti­on in mid 1945.

The evi­dence that I have been able to unearth so far speaks volu­mes for the silence, gloom, negle­ct, con­de­s­cen­si­on, depres­si­on, and per­se­cu­ti­on that enve­lo­ped the ever­y­day life of the South Asi­an Fau­ji in WWII. Inher­ent in the natu­re of this know­ledge gene­ra­ti­on was an ele­ment of com­pul­si­on ‘from abo­ve’ to report the dead, ali­ve or miss­ing per­sons, which per se denies the his­to­ri­an any pos­si­bi­li­ty of fin­ding sub­jec­ti­ve expe­ri­en­ces of the­se sol­diers. The­re are no tes­ti­mo­nies, no let­ters, no effects, no last wis­hes, let alo­ne dia­ries and other ego docu­ments in the­se hol­dings. The­re are no sto­ries of human cont­act, com­pas­si­on and empa­thy from ‘the other uni­ver­se’, inha­bi­ted by ordi­na­ry Ger­mans not very far from the­se sites. And yet they have left behind enough tan­gi­ble traces of their work­a­day from seve­ral sites of work and death. I hope to share some uns­po­ken words from the­se sites with my lis­ten­ers in the MIDA conference. 


Gregor M. Metzig 

Insti­tut für Geschich­te der Uni­ver­si­tät Regensburg

Alltag und Mission. Deutschsprachige Jesuiten im portugiesischen Weltreich (1616–1773)

Kaum eine ande­re Gemein­schaft hat die Geschich­te der katho­li­schen Mis­si­on welt­weit so nach­hal­tig geprägt wie die 1540 offi­zi­ell gegrün­de­te Socie­tas Jesu (SJ). Neue­re Stu­di­en legen nahe, dass das glo­ba­le Enga­ge­ment des Jesui­ten­or­dens jedoch mehr als bis­lang ange­nom­men durch die indi­vi­du­el­le Prä­gung sei­ner Mit­glie­der und der spe­zi­fi­schen Kräf­te­ver­hält­nis­se an ihrem Wir­kungs­ort bestimmt wur­de. Am Bei­spiel der aus der Assis­ten­tia Ger­ma­niae stam­men­den Ordens­an­ge­hö­ri­gen im por­tu­gie­si­schen Patro­nats­be­reich (padroa­do real) soll eine All­tags­ge­schich­te der Jesui­ten geschrie­ben wer­den. Sie zeigt in akteurs­zen­trier­ter Per­spek­ti­ve die Schwie­rig­kei­ten und Lern­pro­zes­se der Mis­sio­na­re im trans­kon­ti­nen­ta­len Ver­gleich zwi­schen den bei­den luso-ame­ri­ka­ni­schen Jesui­ten­pro­vin­zen im Estado do Bra­sil und in Maran­hão sowie den ver­streu­ten por­tu­gie­si­schen Besit­zun­gen rund um den Indi­schen Ozean.

Obwohl der Ordens­grün­der Igna­ti­us von Loyo­la (1491–1556) bereits 1542 die ers­te über­see­ische Jesui­ten­pro­vinz in Indi­en eta­bliert hat­te, spiel­ten aus Mit­tel­eu­ro­pa stam­men­de Mis­sio­na­re dort erst seit dem 17. Jahr­hun­dert eine nen­nens­wer­te Rol­le. Der Vor­trag rückt den­noch bewusst die­se Min­der­heit inner­halb der Gesell­schaft Jesu in den Mit­tel­punkt der Betrach­tung. Der Grund hier­für liegt kei­nes­falls in irgend­ei­ner natio­nal begrün­de­ten Prä­fe­renz,  son­dern in ihrer beson­de­ren Rele­vanz im Hin­blick auf die zen­tra­le Fra­ge­stel­lung des Pro­jekts: einer All­tags­ge­schich­te der Jesui­ten in Über­see. Denn anders als etwa ihre por­tu­gie­si­schen Mit­brü­der ver­füg­ten die Mit­tel­eu­ro­pä­er als Aus­län­der zwangs­läu­fig über eine ande­re Per­spek­ti­ve auf das Leben in den por­tu­gie­si­schen Ter­ri­to­ri­en. So durch­lie­fen sie in den meis­ten Fäl­len eine mehr­fa­che Dif­fe­renz­er­fah­rung, zunächst bei der Ein­rei­se in Por­tu­gal und der Erler­nung der dor­ti­gen Lan­des­spra­che, dann wäh­rend der häu­fig nur ober­fläch­lich erfolg­ten Inte­gra­ti­on in die lus­o­pho­ne Kolo­ni­al­ge­sell­schaft und schließ­lich beim Kon­takt mit den indi­ge­nen Kul­tu­ren. Wel­che beson­de­ren Ver­hal­tens­mus­ter leg­ten die Jesui­ten gegen­über den ver­schie­de­nen Bevöl­ke­rungs­grup­pen in den Kolo­nien an den Tag und wie gestal­te­te sich die Wahr­neh­mung des Frem­den im trans­kon­ti­nen­ta­len Ver­gleich? Die regio­nal über­lie­fer­te Kor­re­spon­denz der deutsch­spra­chi­gen Mis­sio­na­re mit ihren zu Hau­se geblie­be­nen Mit­brü­dern und Ange­hö­ri­gen in den ver­schie­de­nen Lan­des- und Fami­li­en­ar­chi­ven bezie­hungs­wei­se im Archiv der Deut­schen Pro­vinz SJ in Mün­chen oder im Archiv der Nord­deut­schen Pro­vinz SJ (Mün­chen, ehe­mals: Köln) birgt hier­für ein bis­lang noch kaum erschlos­se­nes Quel­len­po­ten­ti­al. Hin­zu kommt die offi­zi­el­le Bericht­erstat­tung der Ordens­ver­tre­ter an ihre Vor­ge­setz­ten sowie nicht zuletzt die von ihnen selbst ver­fass­ten Schrif­ten und Trak­ta­te. Mit ihnen erreich­ten die Mis­sio­na­re ein weit über die katho­li­sche Stamm­le­ser­schaft hin­aus­rei­chen­des Publi­kum und tru­gen damit wesent­lich zum Wan­del des vor­han­de­nen Welt­bil­des im Zeit­al­ter der Auf­klä­rung bei.


Mrinalini Sebastian

The Other Story of Indology: European Missionaries and the Global Journeys of Vernacular Knowledge

Ger­man-spea­king scho­lars have play­ed an important role in crea­ting and sus­tai­ning inte­rest in the field of Indo­lo­gi­cal Stu­dies. During the 19th cen­tu­ry, at the peak of Ger­man inte­rest in India-rela­ted mate­ri­al, anti­qui­ty and Sans­krit were the the­mes that domi­na­ted scho­lar­ship in the field of Indo­lo­gy. This paper will try to make a case for ano­ther sto­ry of Indo­lo­gy, which is less Sans­krit-ori­en­ted, and less obses­sed with the noti­on of anti­qui­ty. This other sto­ry of Indo­lo­gy beg­ins in the ear­ly modern peri­od when Euro­pean Catho­lic and Pro­tes­tant mis­sio­na­ries came to the Indi­an sub-con­ti­nent main­ly in order to evan­ge­li­ze and spread the mes­sa­ge of Christ, but were drawn into unan­ti­ci­pa­ted nego­tia­ti­ons with their imme­dia­te con­texts, resul­ting in know­ledge exch­an­ge, know­ledge inter­pre­ta­ti­on, and know­ledge media­ti­on. This other sto­ry of Indo­lo­gy is less about a pan-Indi­an cul­tu­re but more about ver­na­cu­lar know­ledge, that is, know­ledge that is nati­ve to a spe­ci­fic regi­on of the sub­con­ti­nent. The mis­sio­na­ry-media­ted cir­cu­la­ti­on of ver­na­cu­lar know­ledge shaped seve­ral fields of inquiry in mul­ti-direc­tion­al ways. One such field is the are­na of bota­ni­cal stu­dies, and ano­ther, that of lin­gu­i­stics and lan­guage studies.

This paper will track the way Euro­pean trad­ers and mis­sio­na­ries enga­ged South Indi­an prac­ti­cal and tex­tu­al know­ledge about the medi­cinal use of local plants, and sought to make this know­ledge available to Euro­pe through a net­work of indi­vi­du­als, insti­tu­ti­ons and publi­ca­ti­ons. For exam­p­le, the begin­nings of the fasci­na­ti­on for the medi­cinal plants of South India can be found in a very ear­ly docu­ment cal­led Virida­ri­um Ori­en­ta­le, put tog­e­ther by a Dis­cal­ced Car­me­li­te Monk cal­led Matthew of St Joseph (1612–1691) during the second half of the 17th cen­tu­ry. Matthew of St Joseph then beca­me an important col­la­bo­ra­tor of the high-ran­king Dutch East India Com­pa­ny (VOC) offi­cer Hen­drik Adria­an van Ree­de tot Dra­ken­stein (1636–1691) and Reede’s team of co-workers (that included a local Ezha­va doc­tor, Itty Achu­dem, and three Pan­dits, Dutch bota­nists, illus­tra­tors, and local hel­pers) in the ear­ly stages of the publi­ca­ti­on of the magni­fi­cent 12-volu­me illus­tra­ted book cal­led Hor­tus Indi­cus Mala­ba­ri­cus (1678–1703). This book not only influen­ced bota­nists such as Carl von Lin­nae­us (1707–1778), but also the Pro­tes­tant mis­sio­na­ries from Halle.

It is the objec­ti­ve of this paper to track the glo­bal cir­cu­la­ti­on of indi­ge­nous bota­ni­cal know­ledge, and to fol­low its unan­ti­ci­pa­ted jour­neys from South India to Euro­pe; from Euro­pe back to India; from the past to the pre­sent. Many of the­se jour­neys were faci­li­ta­ted by the scho­lar­ly work of the Ger­ma­no­pho­ne mis­sio­na­ries. Its return was enab­led by scho­lars and pedago­gues who work­ed in the field of Bota­ny. In fact, track­ing the cir­cu­la­ti­on of ver­na­cu­lar know­ledge could help us get at the genea­lo­gy of ano­ther text­book by ano­ther mis­sio­na­ry at ano­ther time, Glim­p­ses into the Life of Indi­an Plants: An Ele­men­ta­ry Indi­an Bota­ny (Manga­lo­re 1908), by the Basel Mis­si­on mis­sio­na­ry Imma­nu­el Pflei­de­rer (1872–1949).

The paper hopes to pre­sent this case stu­dy of mis­sio­na­ry-media­ted intellec­tu­al inter­ven­ti­ons in the field of Bota­ny in order to sug­gest that wri­ting a con­nec­ted histo­ry of the forays of the mis­sio­na­ries into various bran­ches of ver­na­cu­lar know­ledge, could offer us fasci­na­ting insights into the mutual­ly depen­dent net­works of cont­acts, con­nec­tions, and com­mu­ni­ca­ti­ons estab­lished during the ear­ly modern peri­od. I am par­ti­cu­lar­ly inte­res­ted in under­stan­ding the intellec­tu­al genea­lo­gy of the 19th cen­tu­ry Basel Mis­si­on scho­lar­mis­sio­na­ries in this world wide web of con­nec­tions and networks.


Keyvan Djahangiri

Semi­nar für Süd­asi­en-Stu­di­en, Insti­tut für Asi­en- und Afri­ka­wis­sen­schaf­ten, Hum­boldt­Uni­ver­si­tät zu Berlin

Centres of Calculation’ or Dead End? Early Modern Material on ‘India’ in German Archives

By using the exam­p­le of the Fran­cke Foundation’s India Mis­si­on Archi­ve in Hal­le Sax­on­y­An­halt), my paper deals in two sepa­ra­te but inter­de­pen­dent sec­tions with the the­ma­tic of Modern India in Ger­man Archi­ves (MIDA). The first addres­ses a num­ber of hypo­the­ti­cal ques­ti­ons on ‘India’ as the topic of infor­ma­ti­on and know­ledge (1). I will demons­tra­te in the second part methods and per­spec­ti­ves of Ger­man archi­val stu­dies on ‘India’ (2). The paper’s over­all inten­ti­on is to con­tri­bu­te to the dis­cus­sions on how oppor­tu­ni­ties and future trends may be set and uti­li­sed on MIDA’s long-term rese­arch aspect.

1   Ger­man Archi­ves may inde­ed unfold rese­arch poten­ti­al in order to revi­sit wes­tern Indo­lo­gy, which has been hither­to domi­na­ted by Bri­tish-rela­ted aca­de­mia. In com­pli­ance with Bru­no Latour’s ‘Cen­tres of Cal­cu­la­ti­on’, I refer both to unpu­blished and edi­ted ear­ly modern archi­val mate­ri­al from the Fran­cke Foun­da­ti­on to dis­cuss the fol­lo­wing emer­ging questions.[1] Do we wit­ness Ger­man-spea­king ‘Cen­tres of Cal­cu­la­ti­on’ in Hal­le, whe­re infor­ma­ti­on is accu­mu­la­ted, cir­cu­la­ted and mana­ged on ‘India’, and if so, how? Do the­se Cen­tres con­stant­ly (re-)produce ima­gi­ned, trans­mit­ted, and mate­ria­li­zed topics of know­ledge? Or are we rather con­fron­ted with stan­dar­di­s­a­ti­on pro­ce­du­res of infor­ma­ti­on that led to a sta­tic and ins­truc­ti­ve dead end of knowledge?

2   Having set the­se pro­blems forth for fur­ther dis­cus­sions, I would like to pre­sent a few aspects of my own rese­arch on working on ‘India’ in Ger­man archi­ves. This also includes the ope­ra­ting expe­ri­ence with the online search engi­ne of the Fran­cke Foundation’s Archi­ve. The search engi­ne not only helps to loca­li­se the archi­val mate­ri­al, but also enhan­ces – through the inter­con­nec­tion of names, dates, pro­ve­ni­en­ces, and key­words – the epis­te­mo­lo­gi­cal approach of Digi­tal Huma­ni­ties. This might be useful for MIDA’s agen­da of repre­sen­ting and dis­se­mi­na­ting the histo­ry of Indo-Ger­man entanglements.

[1] The ‘Cen­tres of Cal­cu­la­ti­on’ is a cent­re-peri­phery-ori­en­ted con­cept by the French socio­lo­gist Bru­no Latour on how docu­ments are mana­ged as net­work-gene­ra­ted ‘immu­ta­ble and com­bi­nable mobi­les’ and which explo­res their part on the pro­duc­tion of know­ledge; vid. Latour, B. 1987. Sci­ence in Action. How to Fol­low Sci­en­tists and Engi­neers through Socie­ty. Cam­bridge (MA): Har­vard Uni­ver­si­ty Press, 215–257, esp. 227.


Britta Klosterberg

Stu­di­en­zen­trum August Her­mann Fran­cke, Halle

Die Quellen zur Dänisch-Halleschen Mission im Archiv der Franckeschen Stiftungen

Die im Jahr 1706 begrün­de­te Dänisch-Hal­le­sche Mis­si­on ist die ers­te orga­ni­sier­te Mis­si­ons­un­ter­neh­mung in der pro­tes­tan­ti­schen Kir­chen­ge­schich­te. Der über­wie­gen­de Teil der Quel­len wird heu­te im Archiv der Fran­cke­schen Stif­tun­gen zu Hal­le auf­be­wahrt. Seit 2006 befin­det sich auch das ursprüng­lich von den Mis­sio­na­ren in Tran­quebar ange­leg­te, Ende des 19. Jahr­hun­derts vom Evan­ge­lisch Luthe­ri­schen Mis­si­ons­werk in Leip­zig über­nom­me­ne Archiv als Depo­si­tum in den Fran­cke­schen Stif­tun­gen. Der Über­lie­fe­rungs­zeit­raum erstreckt sich vom frü­hen 18. Jahr­hun­dert bis in das ers­te Drit­tel des 19. Jahr­hun­derts. Der Umfang des Gesamt­be­stands beträgt mehr als 34 000 Doku­men­te. Die­se Doku­men­te sind im Rah­men eines DFG-Pro­jekts for­mal und inhalt­lich erschlos­sen und auf der Web­site der Fran­cke­schen Stif­tun­gen in einer deut­schen und in einer eng­li­schen Fas­sung zugäng­lich. Im Rah­men der Mis­si­ons­ar­beit gelang­ten auch Manu­skrip­te in Tamil und Telugu nach Hal­le. Ein Groß­teil die­ser Manu­skrip­te befin­det sich in der Palm­blatt­hand­schrif­ten­samm­lung des Archivs. Der Kata­log der Tamil-Manu­skrip­te kann eben­falls über die Web­site auf­ge­ru­fen wer­den; ein Kata­log der Manu­skrip­te in Telugu ist in Vor­be­rei­tung. Die­se Quel­len wer­den ergänzt durch die Bestän­de in der Biblio­thek der Fran­cke­schen Stif­tun­gen. Dar­un­ter zäh­len die sog. „Hal­le­schen Berich­te“, die ers­te pro­tes­tan­ti­sche Mis­si­ons­zeit­schrift, die digi­tal auf­be­rei­tet und in einer Daten­bank erschlos­sen wor­den ist und wie­der­um Ver­wei­se auf die Quel­len aus dem Archiv enthält.

In dem Vor­trag sol­len die Bestän­de, ihre Erschlie­ßung und Prä­sen­ta­ti­on auf der Web­site der Fran­cke­schen Stif­tun­gen vor­ge­stellt sowie neue Recher­che­mög­lich­kei­ten durch das im Auf­bau befind­li­che „Fran­cke-Por­tal“ auf­ge­zeigt wer­den. Zugleich sol­len Desi­de­ra­ta für die wei­te­re, ver­tief­te Erschlie­ßung und Erfor­schung der Bestän­de zur Dänisch-Hal­le­schen Mis­si­on bzw. Dänisch-Eng­lisch-Hal­le­schen Mis­si­on benannt und zur Dis­kus­si­on gestellt werden.


Ajay Bharadwaj, Anne Murphy, Raghavendra Rao Karkala Vasudevaiah 

Depart­ment of Asi­an Stu­dies, The Uni­ver­si­ty of Bri­tish Colum­bia, Vancouver

Ajay Bhard­waj (docu­men­ta­ry film­ma­ker and Ph.D. stu­dent, Uni­ver­si­ty of Bri­tish Columbia);
Anne Mur­phy (Asso­cia­te Pro­fes­sor, Depart­ment of Asi­an Stu­dies, Uni­ver­si­ty of British
Colum­bia); and Rag­ha­ven­dra Rao K.V. (visu­al artist and facul­ty, Srish­ti School of Art, Design,
and Technology)

Early films/images in and about India: The German Lens“

In the 1920s, as Carl-Erd­mann Schon­feld has noted, the­re were many Ger­mans inte­res­ted in India: this was inde­ed the peri­od of Her­man Hesse’s Sid­dha­rtha. Films such as Osten’s series of films on India („The Light of India“ (1926), „Shiraz“ (1928), and „Throw of Dice“ (1929)) and Richard Eichberg’s „The Indi­an Tomb“ (1938) and „The Tiger of Eschna­pur“ (1938), and others, demons­tra­te the Ger­man cine­ma­tic inte­rest in India, eth­no­gra­phic as well as nar­ra­ti­ve (and com­mer­cial). Ger­man pro­duc­tion know­ledge, equip­ment, and skill in turn pro­found­ly impac­ted the ear­ly years of Indi­an film production.

What is hid­den in the Ger­man archi­ves of foo­ta­ge and infor­ma­ti­on about such film projects?What would it mean to exami­ne such ear­ly fil­mic repre­sen­ta­ti­ons of/in/about India, and relo­ca­te our under­stan­ding of the enga­ge­ment of Euro­pe with India from a broa­der per­spec­ti­ve, out­side of the lens of direct colo­ni­al domi­na­ti­on that has cha­rac­te­ri­zed Bri­tish know­ledge of India, as Shel­don Pol­lock has alre­a­dy sug­gested (1993; see fur­ther dis­cus­sion in Adlu­ri 2011 and Halb­fass 1988).

The goal of our enga­ge­ment with the Ger­man archi­ves along the­se lines is to pro­du­ce scho­lar­ly know­ledge, but also–as far as possible–forms of cul­tu­ral pro­duc­tion, through fil­mic and artis­tic prac­ti­ce, incor­po­ra­ting both film and still images in an under­stan­ding of the Ger­man „eye“ in the ima­gi­na­ti­on of India.


Debjani Bhattacharyya

Depart­ment of Histo­ry and Poli­tics, Dre­xel Uni­ver­si­ty, Philadelphia

The Influence of German Town Planning in British India: Tracing the Heritage of Lex Adikes

This paper will explo­re the glo­bal cir­cu­la­ti­on of Lex Adi­kes, a law deve­lo­ped by Dr. Franz Adi­kes as mayor of Frank­furt (1890–1912), [2] trans­la­ted into Eng­lish for the first time by a Bri­tish civil ser­vant in Bom­bay Mr. E. G. Tur­ner. This trans­la­ti­on was neces­sa­ry for framing land-dis­tri­bu­ti­on laws during ear­ly infra­struc­tu­ral ven­tures in sub­ur­ban plan­ning begin­ning, first, in 1909 with the Bom­bay Impro­ve­ment Trust and, later, with the Cal­cut­ta Impro­ve­ment Trust from1911. Valued for its cost- effec­ti­ve­ness in nego­tia­ting pri­va­te pro­per­ty, public uti­li­ty and emi­nent domain issues, the Lex Adi­kes was suc­cessful­ly imple­men­ted in the­se cities, as a way to cir­cum­vent the more cum­ber­so­me and expen­si­ve opti­ons detail­ed in the Land Acqui­si­ti­on Act of 1894. Adi­kes’ phra­se, ‘[t]he fore­seen needs of the near future,’ beca­me a cen­tral prin­ci­ple in struc­tu­ring town “deve­lo­p­ment,” mar­king, for the first time, the cal­cu­la­ti­on of future cost-bene­fits in muni­ci­pal eco­no­mic thin­king in Bri­tish India and the unf­ur­ling of a deve­lo­p­men­tal regime.[3]

The cir­cu­la­ti­on of know­ledge bet­ween Ger­ma­ny and Britain’s eas­tern colo­ny is hard­ly unknown, alt­hough insuf­fi­ci­ent­ly docu­men­ted. While recent works have begun to chart the cir­cuits of medi­cal and tech­no­lo­gi­cal infor­ma­ti­on, ent­an­gle­ments of poli­ti­cal ide­as and knot­ted intellec­tu­al his­to­ries, much less has been rese­ar­ched about the trans­fers of bureau­cra­tic know­ledge at the level of muni­ci­pa­li­ties bet­ween town-plan­ners in Ger­ma­ny, Bri­tish offi­ci­als in the pre­si­den­cy towns, and Indi­an urba­nists. This paper, gro­wing out of my book manu­script on the histo­ry of urban housing and the pro­per­ty mar­ket in colo­ni­al Cal­cut­ta, will attempt to map the trans­la­ti­on of Ger­man town-plan­ning ide­as into 20th cen­tu­ry muni­ci­pal reor­ga­niza­ti­on of the sub­urbs of Calcutta.

The pre­sence of Ger­man know­ledge within muni­ci­pal ven­tures can be attes­ted to by the easy avai­la­bi­li­ty of Ger­man texts on town plans, muni­ci­pal laws, Prus­si­an zoning laws, as well as trans­la­ti­ons, such as B. W. Kissan’s, I.C.S Report on Town-plan­ning Enact­ments in Ger­ma­ny, in the ear­ly 20th cen­tu­ry libra­ry records of the Cal­cut­ta Muni­ci­pal Libra­ry. In this paper I will del­ve into Bri­tish Engi­neer E. P. Richards’ first com­pre­hen­si­ve town plan­ning report for Cal­cut­ta published in 1914, which has been read as the first sys­te­ma­tic attempt to trans­la­te colo­ni­al town-plan­ning ide­as to Cal­cut­ta (Dut­ta 2013, Har­ris and Lewis, 2014). As my paper will demons­tra­te, Richards’ report did not only build upon Eng­lish town plan­ning laws, but much more on Ger­man sources. Going bey­ond Eng­land, he com­pa­res Cal­cut­ta to other Euro­pean cities, as a means of fore­groun­ding the pos­si­ble bene­fits of fol­lo­wing Ger­man zoning, housing and land dis­tri­bu­ti­on laws and stres­sing the importance of app­ly­ing Lex Adi­kes in Cal­cut­ta, which E. G. Tur­ner was suc­cessful­ly app­ly­ing in Bombay.

To con­clude, my paper’s his­to­ri­cal excava­ti­on into the cont­act zones of bureau­cra­tic know­ledge sys­tems about town plan­ning in Bri­tish India and Ger­ma­ny seeks to achie­ve two things: First, it shifts the focus away from epi­de­mio­lo­gy and sani­ta­ri­an dri­ves born out of the Oxbridge world of moral Chris­tia­ni­ty and Natu­ral Theo­lo­gy of Wil­liam Paley that has been one of the orga­ni­zing lens to view town plan­ning ven­tures in colo­ni­al Cal­cut­ta (Chat­topad­hyay, 2005; Pan­de 2010; Dat­ta, 2013). Second, the­se sources offer a glim­pse into a world of shared know­ledge sys­tems within muni­ci­pal admi­nis­tra­ti­on, some­thing that has been also noted in ear­ly Bri­tish forest con­ser­va­ti­on poli­ci­es. By tur­ning to the­se exch­an­ges I hope to trace a par­al­lel but non-colo­ni­al genea­lo­gy of the 20th-cen­tu­ry deve­lo­p­men­tal sta­te, and the role play­ed by Ger­man muni­ci­pal ide­as in sha­ping some of the prac­ti­ces of modern bureau­cra­tic sta­te for­ma­ti­on in India.

[2] Also known as Gesetz betr. die Umle­gung von Grund­stü­cken in Frank­furt a. M, 1899.

[3] This phra­se has been attri­bu­ted to Dr. Franz Adi­kes in both Bom­bay and Cal­cut­ta Impro­ve­ment Trust Reports, howe­ver I am yet to veri­fy it.