The “Mission Archives” in the Archives of the Francke Foundations in Halle

Portrait of August Hermann Francke

Table of Con­tents: His­to­ri­cal Back­ground | The Cata­lo­guing of Sources | Fin­ding Aids and Online Data­ba­ses | Secon­da­ry Sources on the Mis­si­on Archi­ves and its Cata­lo­guing | Anno­ta­ted Pri­ma­ry Sources  |   Secon­da­ry Lite­ra­tu­re 

This is a trans­la­ted ver­si­on of the 2019 MIDA Archi­val Refle­xi­con ent­ry “Das „Mis­si­ons­ar­chiv“ im Archiv der Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen zu Hal­le”. The text was trans­la­ted by Rekha Rajan.

Historical Background

After a ship voya­ge las­ting more than six mon­ths, the two theo­lo­gi­ans Bar­tho­lo­mä­us Zie­gen­balg (1682–1719) and Hein­rich Plüt­schau (1677–1747) arri­ved in Tran­que­bar (today: Tha­r­an­gam­ba­di), the main bas­ti­on of the Danish colo­nies in Sou­the­ast India on 6 June, 1706. Their arri­val mar­ked the begin­ning of an inter­cul­tu­ral dia­lo­gue that car­ri­ed on into the nine­teenth cen­tu­ry bet­ween the Euro­pean repre­sen­ta­ti­ves of the first Pro­tes­tant mis­si­on in Copen­ha­gen, Hal­le and Lon­don and the peop­le living in the South Indian king­dom of Tan­jo­re. The mis­si­on under­ta­king was fun­ded by the Danish Crown, but it recei­ved gui­d­ance and sup­port from the edu­ca­tio­nal and social insti­tu­ti­ons in Hal­le named after the pas­tor and pro­fes­sor of theo­lo­gy, August Her­mann Francke (1663–1727), who had estab­lis­hed them. The mis­si­on was later also sup­por­ted by the Socie­ty for Pro­mo­ting Chris­ti­an Know­ledge (SPCK) in Lon­don. Thus, the mis­si­on in Tran­que­bar is cal­led the Danish-Hal­le mis­si­on or the Danish-Eng­lish-Hal­le mission.

Zie­gen­balg and Plüt­schau had stu­di­ed in Hal­le whe­re they encoun­te­red the ide­as of Pie­tism, the first reform move­ment in the Pro­tes­tant Church sin­ce the Refor­ma­ti­on. August Her­mann Francke envi­sio­ned the world­wi­de pro­pa­ga­ti­on of Hal­le Pie­tism. The orpha­na­ge and the schools in Glau­cha at the gates of the city of Hal­le were to beco­me the foun­da­ti­on and the point of depar­tu­re for a uni­ver­sal, reli­gi­on-based impro­ve­ment of all esta­tes both wit­hin and out­side Ger­ma­ny. The mis­si­on in India should be pla­ced in this context.

Around 15,000 peop­le lived in Tran­que­bar and its envi­rons con­sis­ting of Hin­dus, Mus­lims, Indian Catho­lic Chris­ti­ans as well as Euro­peans working for the East India Com­pa­ny. After initi­al con­flicts with the East India Com­pa­ny, which even led to Zie­gen­balg being impr­i­son­ed for four mon­ths, the mis­sio­na­ries were able to work lar­ge­ly without dis­rup­ti­on and gra­du­al­ly began to extend their radi­us from Tran­que­bar, the cent­re of the mis­si­on, to the sur­roun­ding regi­ons. Mis­si­on districts even came up in Eng­lish ter­ri­to­ry after the mis­sio­na­ry Ben­ja­min Schult­ze (1689–1760) left Tran­que­bar in 1726 due to dif­fe­ren­ces with his col­leagues and foun­ded a Pro­tes­tant mis­si­on in Madras (pre­sent day: Chen­nai). This sta­ti­on was then finan­ced by the SPCK with mis­sio­na­ries from Hal­le. In the fol­lowing years, other mis­si­on sta­ti­ons were estab­lis­hed on Eng­lish ter­ri­to­ry, among others in Cud­da­lo­re (1730), Than­ja­vur (1762), Tiru­chi­ra­pal­li (1762), Palam­kod­tei (1785), which meant that the mis­sio­na­ries tra­vel­led extensively.

The mis­sio­na­ries were hel­ped in their work by being part of a wide cor­re­spon­dence-net­work which not only made the local infra­st­ruc­tu­re acces­si­ble to them, but also pro­mo­ted exchan­ge with Euro­pe. Thus, they estab­lis­hed con­ta­ct with Pro­tes­tant preachers in all Euro­pean colo­nies bet­ween Cochin and Bata­via as well as at the Cape of Good Hope, with sci­en­tists in Euro­pe and, natu­ral­ly, with August Her­mann Francke, his co-workers and suc­ces­sors. Local­ly, they sought con­ta­ct through cor­re­spon­dence with repre­sen­ta­ti­ves of the Bri­tish and Dut­ch East India Com­pa­nies, with Catho­lic mis­sio­na­ries in South India and, pri­ma­ri­ly, with India­ns them­sel­ves, inclu­ding Hin­dus from dif­fe­rent cas­tes, Mus­lims, lawy­ers, mer­chants, and even Indian prin­ces. One of the most inte­res­ting sources on the life and thought of Tami­li­ans at the begin­ning of the eigh­te­enth cen­tu­ry is the collec­tion tit­led Mala­ba­ri­an Cor­re­spon­dence (Mala­ba­ri­sche Cor­re­spon­denz), a cor­re­spon­dence car­ri­ed out by the mis­sio­na­ries Bar­tho­lo­mä­us Zie­gen­balg and Johann Ernst Gründ­ler (1677–1720) bet­ween 1712 and 1714 with India­ns. The let­ters were sent by the mis­sio­na­ries to Hal­le whe­re they were edi­ted and publis­hed in the perio­di­cal that appeared regu­lar­ly sin­ce 1710: Der Königl. Däni­schen Mis­sio­na­ri­en aus Ost-Indi­en ein­ge­sand­ter Aus­führ­li­chen Berich­ten, the so-cal­led Hal­le Reports, publis­hed by the Orphan House. The­se let­ters were thus made avail­ab­le to an inte­res­ted rea­ders­hip in Europe.

The Hal­le Reports con­tain dia­ries, let­ters, tra­vel dia­ries, trea­ti­ses, sta­tis­ti­cal accounts and obitua­ries, and were the­re­fo­re, not only the most important bea­rers of infor­ma­ti­on media about the Danish-Hal­le mis­si­on, but also the most effec­ti­ve pro­pa­gan­da tool to rai­se dona­ti­ons and to build up a net­work of spon­sors. The list of sub­scri­bers went far bey­ond Pro­tes­tant Ger­ma­ny, exten­ding to Rus­sia, Fin­land, Livo­nia, North Bohe­mia, Den­mark, the Nether­lands, Eng­land, Ita­ly and Aus­tria. The edi­tors selec­ted mate­ri­al from the docu­ments sent by the mis­sio­na­ries and part­ly cen­so­red the sources in kee­ping with the inten­ti­ons of the mission.

For the mis­sio­na­ries, lan­guage was the most important instru­ment to spread the word of God in the local lan­guage and to this end they trans­la­ted the Bible and devo­tio­nal Pie­tist lite­ra­tu­re. They main­ly learnt Tamil, but also Telugu and Hin­du­sta­ni, as well as Por­tu­gue­se which was important becau­se of the pre­sence of Euro­peans and their descen­dants. As ear­ly as 1715, Bar­tho­lo­mä­us Zie­gen­balg publis­hed the New Tes­ta­ment in Tamil, which was prin­ted in the mis­si­on prin­ting press in Tran­que­bar. Based on their stu­dy of theo­lo­gy, for which they had lear­ned many lan­guages, the mis­sio­na­ries under­took pionee­ring rese­arch in com­pa­ra­ti­ve lin­gu­is­tics. This inclu­des Ziegenbalg’s Gram­ma­ti­ca Damu­li­ca (Hal­le 1716), Schultze’s Gram­ma­ti­ca Hin­do­sta­ni­ca (Hal­le 1745) and Gram­ma­ti­ca Telugui­ca (Madras 1728), or the Tamil-Eng­lish dic­tion­a­ry by Johann Phil­ipp Fab­ri­ci­us (1711–1791). The prin­ting press in Tran­que­bar pri­ma­ri­ly pro­du­ced trans­la­ti­ons of the Bible and Pro­tes­tant devo­tio­nal lite­ra­tu­re, but also grammars, dic­tio­n­a­ries, school­books, calen­dars and works com­mis­sio­ned by the Danish and Eng­lish colo­ni­al admi­nis­tra­ti­ons. Preachers dis­tri­bu­t­ed many of the shor­ter works free of cost to the people.

In addi­ti­on to this, the mis­sio­na­ries under­took the edu­ca­ti­on of the youth. Alrea­dy in 1707, the first school was estab­lis­hed in Tran­que­bar and in the same year a girls’ school was set up, which was pro­bab­ly the first school for girls in India. The trai­ning of cate­chists aimed at tea­ching local adults, and they were induc­ted direct­ly into the ser­vice of the mis­si­on as so-cal­led “natio­nal workers”. In 1733, the first Indian who had been bap­ti­zed by Zie­gen­balg in 1718, was ordai­ned and given the name Aaron.

Several mis­sio­na­ries saw them­sel­ves not only as theo­lo­gi­ans but also as scholars/scientists, and they sent their writ­ten obser­va­tions on cul­tu­re and socie­ty, on fau­na and flo­ra, on meteo­ro­lo­gy and medi­ci­ne, but also their pre­ser­ved natu­ral histo­ry spe­ci­mens or cult objects to Hal­le, whe­re they can still be admi­red in the Cabi­net of Arte­facts and Natu­ral Curio­si­ties. Some mis­sio­na­ries beca­me mem­bers of inter­na­tio­nal sci­en­ti­fic socie­ties, cor­re­spon­ding with aca­de­my mem­bers and scho­l­ars all over Euro­pe. Several obser­va­tions and descrip­ti­ons were publis­hed in the Hal­le Reports, but also in sci­en­ti­fic perio­di­cals and jour­nals, and all this con­tri­bu­t­ed to the know­ledge of India in Euro­pe. In due cour­se of time Hal­le lost its role as the spi­ri­tu­al cent­re of the mis­si­on. In 1837, the Lutheran Mis­si­on Socie­ty of Dres­den took over the mis­si­on sta­ti­on in Tran­que­bar and then han­ded it over in 1848 to the Leip­zig Mis­si­on Socie­ty. Today, the Evan­ge­li­cal-Lutheran Chris­ti­ans of Tamil Nadu are uni­fied main­ly in the Tamil Evan­ge­li­cal Lutheran Church (TELC), which was estab­lis­hed in 1919.

The Cataloguing of Sources

The sources for the Danish-Hal­le mis­si­on are pri­ma­ri­ly kept in the archi­ves of the Francke Foun­da­ti­ons. As ear­ly as the eigh­te­enth cen­tu­ry, a sepa­ra­te mis­si­on archi­ve was set up, which was admi­nis­te­red by the East India Mis­si­on Insti­tu­te loca­ted on the pre­mi­ses of the Francke Foun­da­ti­ons. Today it is a part of the archi­ves of the Francke Foun­da­ti­ons and is divi­ded into an India and an Ame­ri­ca sec­tion. The term “mis­si­on archi­ve”, howe­ver, has per­sis­ted and beco­me part of the lite­ra­tu­re. Until the begin­ning of the 1990s, the manu­scripts were pre­ser­ved in ches­ts spe­cial­ly made for them. Today they are kept in a tem­pe­ra­tu­re-con­trol­led room in the August Her­mann Francke Stu­dy Centre.

The oldest cata­lo­gue of the hol­dings is from 1828 and it was used for the first time in the second half of the nine­teenth cen­tu­ry by Wil­helm Ger­mann (1840–1902), who ana­ly­sed the cor­re­spon­dence of the mis­sio­na­ries and of the mis­si­on direc­tors for his work on the Tran­que­bar mis­si­on. In the fol­lowing years, the mis­si­on archi­ve was con­stant­ly expan­ded; new archi­val docu­ments beca­me part of the hol­dings or were relo­ca­ted from other sec­tions of the archi­ves. In the 1950s, the hol­dings were again cata­logued in a fin­ding aids book and a card index. The ent­i­re hol­dings were re-docu­men­ted with con­tent sum­ma­ries and stan­dar­di­zed key­words from 2003 to 2005 wit­hin the frame­work of a cata­lo­guing pro­ject fun­ded by the Ger­man Rese­arch Coun­cil (DFG), which is avail­ab­le on the web­site of the Stu­dy Cent­re. An Eng­lish ver­si­on of the data­ba­se can also be found the­re. The latest addi­ti­on to the archi­ves of the Francke Foun­da­ti­ons took place in April 2006, when the archi­ve of the Leip­zig Mis­si­on was han­ded over as a depo­si­to­ry. This con­tains the for­mer Tran­que­bar archi­ve which was sent from India to Ger­ma­ny at the end of the nine­teenth cen­tu­ry. The­se archi­val mate­ri­als have also been cata­logued in the archi­val data­ba­se of the Stu­dy Cent­re. Addi­tio­nal­ly, all dia­ries and tra­vel dia­ries from the mis­si­on archi­ves as well as the publis­hed Hal­le Reports are avail­ab­le in the digi­tal collec­tions of the Stu­dy Centre.

The archi­val docu­ments in the India sec­tion of the mis­si­on archi­ves of the Francke Foun­da­ti­ons have not been filed accord­ing to a stan­dard princip­le of clas­si­fi­ca­ti­on. Ins­tead, they were put tog­e­ther into groups of the hol­dings part­ly accord­ing to chro­no­lo­gy and part­ly based on con­tent. The mis­si­on archi­ve (India) con­sists of 33,178 indi­vi­du­al manuscripts.

The­se inclu­de mainly:

  • let­ters and dia­ries of the missionaries
  • drafts of let­ters and inst­ruc­tions from the direc­tors in Hal­le to the missionaries
  • copies of let­ters from the Mis­si­on Board in Copen­ha­gen and from the Socie­ty for Pro­mo­ting Chris­ti­an Know­ledge (SPCK) in Lon­don to the missionaries
  • the inner-Euro­pean cor­re­spon­dence bet­ween the mis­si­on direc­tors in Hal­le, Copen­ha­gen, and London
  • let­ters of dona­ti­on from sup­por­ters of the mission
  • mis­si­on accounts and other accounts
  • school cata­lo­gues as evi­dence of tea­ching acti­vi­ty and spon­sor­s­hip of Tami­li­an children
  • work con­tracts
  • drawings and buil­ding plans
  • reports and trea­ti­ses of the mis­sio­na­ries on reli­gi­on, lan­guage, morals and cus­toms, flo­ra and fau­na, geo­gra­phy, and cli­ma­te as well as medi­ci­ne in South India.

Other hol­dings of the archi­ves of the Francke Foun­da­ti­ons con­tain sup­ple­men­ta­ry archi­val docu­ments on the Danish-Hal­le mis­si­on: in the main archi­ves the­re are 68 let­ters, 14 book manu­scripts, 6 dia­ries; in the eco­no­mic and admi­nis­tra­ti­ve archi­ves the­re are 29 files with dona­ti­ons, bequests, mat­ters con­cer­ning esta­tes, endow­ments, mis­si­on accounts, records of various mis­si­on socie­ties; in the image archi­ves the­re are six pain­tings, some cop­per­pla­te engra­vings and pho­to­graphs. The so-cal­led Tran­que­bar archi­ve in the Leip­zig Mis­si­on Archi­ves con­tains 1,482 manu­scripts of cor­re­spon­dence with Euro­pe kept in Tran­que­bar. The­se also inclu­de ori­gi­nal docu­ments of prime impor­t­ance, such as the let­ters of appoint­ment from the Danish king and inst­ruc­tions for the first mis­sio­na­ries, Bar­tho­lo­mä­us Ziegenbalg’s last will and tes­ta­ment, or the hand-writ­ten let­ters from August Her­mann Francke to the mis­sio­na­ries. Other hand-writ­ten sources that have a direct con­nec­tion to the hol­dings of the India-sec­tion of the mis­si­on archi­ves are in the Staats­bi­blio­thek zu Ber­lin – Preu­ßi­scher Kul­tur­be­sitz. The­se hol­dings, desi­gna­ted as Francke esta­te, were ori­gi­nal­ly part of the archi­ves of the Francke Foun­da­ti­ons. The­se archi­val docu­ments have also been cata­logued in the archi­val data­ba­se of the Stu­dy Centre.

A collec­tion of palm leaf manu­scripts also belongs to the Danish-Hal­le Mission´s tra­di­ti­on, of which 102 manu­scripts are in Tamil and 162 are in Telugu. They are main­ly trans­la­ti­ons of Bibli­cal or other reli­gious texts, and ser­mons. The Tamil manu­scripts were cata­logued by Dani­el Jeya­raj and the Telugu manu­scripts by Gérard Colas and Usha Colas Chau­han. The­se cata­lo­gues can also be acces­sed all over the world through the web­site of the Stu­dy Cent­re. As a sup­ple­ment to the mis­si­on archi­ves, the Francke Foun­da­ti­ons also have a mis­si­on libra­ry with prin­ted mate­ri­al from the mis­sio­na­ry prin­ting press in Tran­que­bar, and about 100 objects that the mis­sio­na­ries sent from India to Hal­le, which are kept in the Cabi­net of Arte­facts and Natu­ral Curio­si­ties pre­ser­ved in its ori­gi­nal sta­te sin­ce the eigh­te­enth cen­tu­ry. The­se objects inclu­de pre­ser­ved plants and ani­mals as well as arte­facts. The lat­ter are kept in their own “Mala­ba­ri­an cup­board” and inclu­de both reli­gious objects as well as objects of dai­ly use.

Finding Aids and Online Databases

Reper­to­ry of the mis­si­on cor­re­spon­dence. Hal­le 1828. Hal­le, Archi­ves of the Francke Foun­da­ti­ons: AFSt/W  XXVIIII/-/24.

Card index of the 1950s. Hal­le, Archi­ves of the Francke Foundations.

Archi­ve data­ba­se of the August Her­mann Francke Stu­dy Centre

Data­ba­se of the archi­val hol­dings of the Danish-Hal­le Mission (Eng­lish)

Digi­tal Collec­tions of the August Her­mann Francke Stu­dy Centre,

Palm leaf and paper manu­scripts in Tamil (Ger­man) (Eng­lish)

Palm leaf manu­scripts in Telugu‌b‌d‌4‌9‌f‌b‌e‌67ba‌fc733efa5b530931a179d8 (Eng­lish)

Secondary Sources on the Mission Archives and its Cataloguing

Gröschl, Jür­gen, “Die Erschlie­ßung der Quel­len zur Dänisch-Hal­le­schen Mis­si­on im Stu­di­en­zen­trum August Her­mann Francke der Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen”. In: Hei­ke Lie­bau, Andre­as Nehring, Bri­git­te Klos­ter­berg (ed.) Mis­si­on und For­schung. Trans­lo­ka­le Wis­sens­pro­duk­ti­on zwi­schen Indi­en und Euro­pa im 18. und 19. Jahr­hun­dert. Hal­le: Ver­lag der Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen, 2010, pp. 47–53.

——–, “Die Genea­lo­gie der Mala­ba­ri­schen Göt­ter – Hand­schrif­ten und Dru­cke des reli­gi­ons­ge­schicht­li­chen Haupt­werks von Bar­tho­lo­mä­us Zie­gen­balg”. In: Hei­ke Lie­bau, Andre­as Nehring, Bri­git­te Klos­ter­berg (ed.) Mis­si­on und For­schung. Trans­lo­ka­le Wis­sens­pro­duk­ti­on zwi­schen Indi­en und Euro­pa im 18. und 19. Jahr­hun­dert. Hal­le: Ver­lag der Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen, 2010, pp. 227–237.

——–, “Koope­ra­ti­ve Erschlie­ßungs­pro­jek­te im Archiv der Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen am Bei­spiel des Ber­li­ner Francke-Nach­las­ses und der Hand­schrif­ten zur Dänisch-Hal­le­schen Mis­si­on”. Aus evan­ge­li­schen Archi­ven 45 (2005): pp. 90–101.

Lie­bau, Hei­ke, Die Quel­len der Dänisch-Hal­le­schen Mis­si­on in Tran­que­bar in deut­schen Archi­ven. Ihre Bedeu­tung für die Indi­en­for­schung. Ber­lin: Ver­lag das Ara­bi­sche Buch, 1993.

Pabst, Eri­ka, “Die Erschlie­ßung der Archiv­be­stän­de zur Dänisch-Hall­schen Mis­si­on in Hal­le und Leip­zig.” In: Udo Strä­ter [u.a.] (ed.) Alter Adam und Neue Krea­tur. Pie­tis­mus und Anthro­po­lo­gie. Bei­trä­ge zum II. Inter­na­tio­na­len Kon­gress für Pie­tis­mus­for­schung 2005: Bd. 1. Tübin­gen: Nie­mey­er, 2009, pp. 491–498.

Pabst, Eri­ka, Tho­mas Mül­ler-Bahl­ke (ed.), Quel­len­be­stän­de der Indi­en­mis­si­on 1700–1918 in Archi­ven des deutsch­spra­chi­gen Raums. Hal­le: Nie­mey­er, 2005.

Storz, Jür­gen, “Das Mis­si­ons-Archiv (Indi­en) der Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen zu Hal­le”. In: Joa­chim Diet­ze (ed.) Eine wis­sen­schaft­li­che Biblio­thek und ihr Umfeld. Bei­trä­ge aus der Uni­ver­si­täts- und Lan­des­bi­blio­thek Sach­sen-Anhalt anläss­lich des 100. Geburts­ta­ges von Fritz Junt­ke. Hal­le: Univ.- u. Lan­des­bi­blio­thek Sach­sen-Anhalt, 1986, pp. 31–37.

Annotated Primary Sources

Gründ­ler, Johann Ernst, Bar­tho­lo­mä­us Zie­gen­balg, Die mala­ba­ri­sche Kor­re­spon­denz. Tami­li­sche Brie­fe an deut­sche Mis­sio­na­re. Eine Aus­wahl. Ein­ge­lei­tet u. erläu­tert v. Kurt Lie­bau. Sig­ma­rin­gen: Thor­be­cke, 1998.

Jeya­raj, Dani­el (ed.), Bar­tho­lo­mä­us Zie­gen­balgs Genea­lo­gie der mala­ba­ri­schen Göt­ter. Edi­ti­on der Ori­gi­nal­fas­sung von 1713 mit Ein­lei­tung, Ana­ly­se und Glos­sar. Hal­le: Ver­lag der Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen, 2003.

——–, Tamil lan­guage for Euro­peans: Ziegenbalg’s “Gram­ma­ti­ca Damu­li­ca” (1716). Transl. from Latin and Tamil, annot. and com­men­ted by Dani­el Jeya­raj with the assi­s­tance of Rachel Har­ring­ton. Wies­ba­den: Harr­as­so­witz, 2010.

Jeya­raj, Dani­el, Richard Fox Young (ed.), Hin­du-Chris­ti­an epis­to­la­ry self-dis­clo­sures. “Mala­ba­ri­an Cor­re­spon­dence” bet­ween Ger­man Pie­tist mis­sio­na­ries and South Indian Hin­dus (1712 1714). Trans­la­ted, intro­du­ced and anno­ta­ted by Dani­el Jeya­raj and Richard Fox Young. Wies­ba­den: Harr­as­so­witz, 2013.

Sweet­man, Will (ed.), Biblio­the­ca Mala­ba­ri­ca: Bar­tho­lo­mä­us Ziegenbalg’s Tamil libra­ry. An anno­ta­ted ed. and transl. by Will Sweet­man with R. Ilak­ku­van. Pon­di­cher­ry: Inst. Fran­çais de Pon­di­ché­ry; Paris: Éco­le Fran­çai­se d’Extrême-Orient, 2012.

Zie­gen­balg, Bar­tho­lo­mä­us, Alte Brie­fe aus Indi­en. Unver­öf­fent­lich­te Brie­fe 1706–1719. Hg. v. Arno Leh­mann. Ber­lin: Evang. Verl.-Anst., 1957.

——–, Genea­lo­gy of the South Indian dei­ties. An Eng­lish trans­la­ti­on of Bar­tho­lo­mä­us Ziegenbalg’s ori­gi­nal Ger­man manu­script with a tex­tu­al ana­ly­sis and glos­sa­ry, [trans­la­ted and edi­ted by] Dani­el Jeya­raj. Lon­don [et al.]: Rout­ledge Cur­zon, 2005.

——–, A Ger­man explo­ra­ti­on of Indian socie­ty. Ziegenbalg’s “Mala­ba­ri­an Hea­the­nism”. An anno­ta­ted Eng­lish trans­la­ti­on with an intro­duc­tion and a glos­sa­ry by Dani­el Jeya­raj. Chen­nai, New Delhi: The Myl­apo­re Insti­tu­te for Indi­ge­nous Stu­dies [u.a.], 2006.

——–, Der gott­ge­fäl­li­ge Lehr­stand. Eine gekürz­te Aus­wahl sei­ner Gefäng­nis­schrift. Hg. v. Niels-Peter Morit­zen. Hal­le: Ver­lag der Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen, 2005. Eng­lish Ver­si­on: The esta­te of the cler­gy plea­sing to god. An abrid­ged selec­tion of his book writ­ten in pri­son. Transl. by Rekha Vaidya Rajan. Hal­le: Francke­sche Stif­tun­gen, 2019; Delhi: ISPCK, 2019.

Secondary Literature

Arul­doss, T., R. Seka­ran (ed.), Bar­tho­lo­mae­us Zie­gen­balg. His life and ser­vice to Tamil socie­ty. Ter­cen­ten­a­ry publi­ca­ti­on 9th July 1706 – 9th July 2006. Tiru­chi­rap­pal­li: Zie­gen­balg Insti­tu­te of Prin­ting Tech­no­lo­gy, 2006.

Ber­gun­der, Micha­el (ed.), Mis­si­ons­be­rich­te aus Indi­en im 18. Jahr­hun­dert. Ihre Bedeu­tung für die euro­päi­sche Geis­tes­ge­schich­te und ihr wis­sen­schaft­li­cher Quel­len­wert für die Indi­en­kun­de. Hal­le: Ver­lag der Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen, 1999, 2. Aufl. 2004.

Dha­ram­pal-Frick, Gita, Indi­en im Spie­gel deut­scher Quel­len der Frü­hen Neu­zeit (1500–1750). Stu­di­en zu einer inter­kul­tu­rel­len Kon­stel­la­ti­on. Tübin­gen: Nie­mey­er, 1994.

Fihl, Esther (ed.), The Governor´s resi­dence in Tran­que­bar. The house and the dai­ly life of its peop­le, 1750–1845. Koben­havn: Muse­um Guscu­la­num Press, 2017.

Fihl, Esther, A. R. Ven­kat­ach­a­la­pa­thy (ed.), Bey­ond Tran­que­bar. Grap­p­ling across cul­tu­ral bor­ders in South India. Hyder­abad: Ori­ent BlackS­wan, 2014.

Fried­rich, Mar­kus, Alex­an­der Schunka (ed.), Repor­ting Chris­ti­an mis­si­ons in the eigh­te­enth cen­tu­ry. Com­mu­ni­ca­ti­on, cul­tu­re of know­ledge and regu­lar publi­ca­ti­on in a cross-con­fes­sio­nal per­spec­ti­ve. Wies­ba­den: Harr­as­so­witz, 2017.

Gleix­ner, Ulri­ke, “Remap­ping the World: The Visi­on of a Pro­tes­tant Empi­re in the Eigh­te­enth Cen­tu­ry”. In: Becker-Can­t­a­ri­no, Bar­ba­ra (ed.), Migra­ti­on and Reli­gi­on. Chris­ti­an Trans­at­lan­tic Mis­si­ons, Isla­mic Migra­ti­on to Ger­ma­ny, Ams­ter­dam, New York: Rod­o­pi, 2012, pp. 77–90.

——–, “Mil­lenari­an Prac­ti­ces and the Pie­tist Empi­re”. In: Heal, Brid­get, Anort­he Kre­mers (ed.), Radi­ca­lism and Dis­sent in the World of Pro­tes­tant Reform, Göt­tin­gen, Bris­tol, CT: Van­den­hoeck & Ruprecht, 2017, pp. 245–256.

Gross, Andre­as, Y. Vin­cent Kuma­ra­doss, Hei­ke Lie­bau (ed.), Hal­le and the Begin­ning of Pro­tes­tant Chris­tia­ni­ty in India. Vol. I: The Danish-Hal­le and the Eng­lish Hal­le Mis­si­on. Vol. II: Chris­ti­an Mis­si­on in the Indian Con­text. Vol. III: Com­mu­ni­ca­ti­on bet­ween India and Euro­pe. Hal­le: Ver­lag der Francke­schen Stitftun­gen zu Hal­le, 2006.

Jeya­raj, Dani­el, Bar­tho­lo­mä­us Zie­gen­balg. The father of modern pro­tes­tant mis­si­on. An Indian assess­ment. Delhi: ISPCK, 2006.

——–, Inkul­tu­ra­ti­on in Tran­que­bar. Der Bei­trag der frü­hen dänisch-hal­le­schen Mis­si­on zum Wer­den einer indisch-ein­hei­mi­schen Kir­che (1706–1730). Erlan­gen: Verl. d. Ev.-Luth. Mis­si­on, 1996.

Jør­gen­sen, Hel­le, Tran­que­bar – who­se histo­ry? Trans­na­tio­nal cul­tu­ral heri­ta­ge in a for­mer Danish tra­ding colo­ny in South India. New Delhi: Ori­ent Blacks­wan, 2014.

Leh­mann, Arno, Es begann in Tran­que­bar. Die Geschich­te der ers­ten evan­ge­li­schen Kir­che in Indi­en. Ber­lin: Evang.-Verl.-Anst., 1955, 2. Aufl. 1956. Eng­lish Ver­si­on: It began at Tran­que­bar. The sto­ry of the Tran­que­bar Mis­si­on and the begin­ning of Pro­tes­tant Chris­tia­ni­ty in India publis­hed to cele­bra­te the 250th anni­ver­s­a­ry of the lan­ding of the first pro­tes­tant mis­sio­na­ries at Tran­que­bar in 1706. Transl. from the Ger­man by M. J. Lutz. Madras: Chris­ti­an Lite­ra­tu­re Socie­ty, 1956. Reprin­ted for the Ter­Cen­ten­a­ry (1706–2006). 2nd ed. Chen­nai: The Chris­ti­an Lite­ra­tu­re Socie­ty, 2006.

Lie­bau, Hei­ke, Die indi­schen Mit­ar­bei­ter der Tran­que­bar­mis­si­on (1706–1845): Kate­che­ten, Schul­meis­ter, Über­set­zer. Tübin­gen: Nie­mey­er, 2008. Eng­lish Ver­si­on: Cul­tu­ral encoun­ters in India: the local co-workers of the Tran­que­bar mis­si­on, 18th to 19th cen­tu­ries. Transl. from the Ger­man by Rekha V. Rajan. Lon­don, New York: Rout­ledge, 2018.

Lie­bau, Hei­ke (ed.), Gelieb­tes Euro­pa // Ost­in­di­sche Welt, 300 Jah­re inter­kul­tu­rel­ler Dia­log im Spie­gel der Dänisch-Hal­le­schen Mis­si­on. Kata­log der Jah­res­aus­stel­lung der Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen vom 7. Mai bis 3. Okto­ber 2006. Hal­le: Ver­lag der Francke­sche Stif­tun­gen, 2006.

Lie­bau, Hei­ke, “Von Hal­le nach Madras. Pie­tis­ti­sche Wai­sen­haus­päd­ago­gik und eng­li­sche Appro­pria­tio­nen in Indi­en”. Com­pa­ra­tiv. Leip­zi­ger Bei­trä­ge zur Uni­ver­sal­ge­schich­te und ver­glei­chen­den Gesell­schafts­for­schung 15 (2005): pp. 31–57.

Lie­bau, Hei­ke, Andre­as Nehring, Bri­git­te Klos­ter­berg (ed.), Mis­si­on und For­schung. Trans­lo­ka­le Wis­sens­pro­duk­ti­on zwi­schen Indi­en und Euro­pa im 18. und 19. Jahr­hun­dert. Hal­le: Ver­lag der Francke­schen Stif­tun­gen, 2010.

Mann, Micha­el (ed.), Euro­päi­sche Auf­klä­rung und pro­tes­tan­ti­sche Mis­si­on in Indi­en. Hei­del­berg: Drau­pa­di-Ver­lag, 2006.

Nehring, Andre­as, Ori­en­ta­lis­mus und Mis­si­on. Die Reprä­sen­ta­ti­on der tami­li­schen Gesell­schaft und Reli­gi­on durch die Leip­zi­ger Mis­sio­na­re 1840–1940. Wies­ba­den: Harr­as­so­witz, 2003.

Nør­gaard, Anders, Mis­si­on und Obrig­keit. Die Dänisch-hal­li­sche Mis­si­on in Tran­que­bar 1706–1845. Güters­loh: Mohn, 1988.

Oster­ham­mel, Jür­gen, Die Ent­zau­be­rung Asi­ens. Euro­pa und die asia­ti­schen Rei­che im 18. Jahr­hun­dert. Mün­chen: Beck, 1998.

Ruh­land, Tho­mas, Pie­tis­ti­sche Kon­kur­renz und Natur­ge­schich­te. Die Süd­in­di­en­mis­si­on der Herrn­hu­ter Brü­der­ge­mei­ne und die Dänisch-Eng­lisch-Hal­le­sche Mis­si­on (1755–1802). Herrn­hut: Herrn­hu­ter Ver­lag, 2018.

Trepp, Anne-Char­lott, “‘Daher ent­steht so viel natur­his­to­ri­sches Unheil‘. Wis­sens- und Kul­tur­trans­fer zwi­schen Indi­en und Euro­pa. Die Hal­le­schen Mis­si­ons­be­rich­te”. In: Beck, Andre­as (ed.), Lite­ra­tur der Frü­hen Neu­zeit und ihre kul­tu­rel­len Kon­tex­te. Frank­furt am Main [u.a.]: Lang, 2012, pp. 229–255.

Bri­git­te Klos­ter­berg, Francke­sche Stif­tun­gen zu Halle