Passports, Citizenship, and the (Im)possibility of Return: The Indian Revolutionary M. P. T. Acharya in German Archives


Table of Con­tents: Pas­sa­ge to Exi­le  |  The First World War and the Indian-Ger­man Con­spi­ra­cy  | The Rus­si­an Revo­lu­ti­on and Sta­te Aut­ho­ri­ta­ria­nism  |  Citi­zenship, Pass­ports, and Sedi­ti­on in Wei­mar Ber­lin  |  Archi­val Sources  |  Con­clu­si­on  |  End­no­te  |  Biblio­gra­phy

Throughout his almost twen­ty-seven years in exi­le, the Indian revo­lu­tio­na­ry Man­da­yam Pra­tiva­di Bha­y­an­ka­ram Tir­umal “M. P. T.” Acha­rya (1887–1954) tra­vel­led from India to Bri­tain in 1908, to Por­tu­gal, Fran­ce, Ger­ma­ny, Tur­key, and the United Sta­tes from 1909 to 1914, to Ger­ma­ny, the Midd­le East, and Swe­den during the First World War, and to Rus­sia in 1919. He then spent twel­ve years in Ber­lin from 1922 to 1934, befo­re he escaped Nazi Ger­ma­ny, living under­ground in Switz­er­land and Fran­ce, and final­ly retur­ned to India in 1935.

Like so many Asi­an anti-colo­nia­lists of his genera­ti­on, Acha­rya lived an iti­nerant revo­lu­tio­na­ry life in exi­le (Har­per, 2021: 50–51). At a time of gre­at trans­na­tio­nal anti­co­lo­ni­al acti­vi­ty, throughout war and revo­lu­ti­on, the rise of fascism and Nazism, to tra­vel across several con­ti­nents and cros­sing bor­ders was no easy task. This has also made it dif­fi­cult for his­to­ri­ans to pro­vi­de a com­pre­hen­si­ve account of Acharya’s life (Subra­man­yam, 1995). Based on my bio­gra­phy of Acha­rya (Laursen, forth­co­m­ing), in this essay I reflect on archi­val traces of this wan­de­ring revo­lu­tio­na­ry through pass­ports and the issue of citi­zenship. As John Tor­pey argues, pass­ports have been cen­tral to sta­tes’ “abi­li­ty to ‘embrace’ their own sub­jects and to make dis­tinc­tions bet­ween natio­nals and non-natio­nals, and to track the move­ments of per­sons in order to sus­tain the bounda­ry bet­ween the­se two groups (whe­ther at the bor­der or not)” (Tor­pey, 2018: 2). What is more, as Rad­hi­ka Mon­gia makes clear in rela­ti­on to Indian migra­ti­on, exi­le, and empi­re, the modern pass­port emer­ged “through the arti­cu­la­ti­on of nati­on, race, and sta­te” and, in doing so, was cru­cial to defi­ning the­se cate­go­ries in the ear­ly twen­tieth cen­tu­ry (Mon­gia, 2018: 112).

During his time in exi­le, Acha­rya spent con­si­derable time in Ger­ma­ny (1910–1911, 1922–1934) and under Ger­man pro­tec­tion (1914–1919), which has left several traces of him in the Poli­ti­sches Archiv des Aus­wär­ti­gen Amts (PA AA). In fact, in explo­ring his wan­de­ring life, it is infor­ma­ti­ve to read files from the PA AA in con­junc­tion with India Office Records (IOR), held in the Bri­tish Libra­ry, Lon­don, files from the Natio­nal Archi­ves of India (NAI) as well as files from the North Ame­ri­can Records Admi­nis­tra­ti­on (NARA) to ful­ly under­stand the com­ple­xi­ties of exi­led anti­co­lo­ni­al lives and the (im)possibility of return to India. Inde­ed, focu­sing on the role of pass­ports, the files on Acha­rya in the PA AA reve­al a gre­at deal about the embrace of sta­te aut­ho­ri­ty and citi­zenship as well as, con­ver­se­ly, how they eva­ded and sub­ver­ted the watch­ful eyes of colo­ni­al authorities.

Passage to Exile

In Novem­ber 1908, fea­ring impr­i­son­ment for sedi­ti­on, Acha­rya fled India and arri­ved in win­ter-cold Mar­seil­le, pro­cee­ding immedia­te­ly to Paris and, a week later, to Lon­don. In the impe­ri­al metro­po­lis, he soon beca­me part of the inner cir­cle of Indian natio­na­lists at India House and, in August 1909, with fel­low India House mem­ber Sukh Sagar Dutt, ven­tu­red on a mis­si­on to join the Rif anti­co­lo­ni­al strug­gles against the Spa­nish in Moroc­co (Acha­rya, Sep 1937: 3). For this, Acha­rya obtai­ned a Bri­tish pass­port on 16 August from the India Office in Lon­don and depar­ted from Sout­hamp­ton on 18 August 1909. Acharya’s Bri­tish pass­port has sin­ce gone mis­sing in the IOR (IOR/L/PJ/6/956, files 3066–3070) but been reco­ve­r­ed from the NARA (Old Ger­man Files, 1909–21, 8000–1396, M1085). Acha­rya fai­led to reach the Rifs and was soon stran­ded in Tan­gier. Mean­while, back in India, a war­rant for his arrest was issued in Sep­tem­ber 1909 for his invol­ve­ment in the natio­na­list paper India in 1908 (NAI, Home & Poli­ti­cal, B 1909, Dec 37). This meant that Acha­rya could not return to India or set foot on Bri­tish ter­ri­to­ry again. Howe­ver, with a Bri­tish pass­port in hand, throughout the next two years, Acha­rya tra­vel­led to Lis­bon, Paris, Brussels, Rot­ter­dam, and Ber­lin befo­re he arri­ved in Munich in the spring of 1911.

In the autumn of 1911, in an act of anti-Euro­pean soli­da­ri­ty, Acha­rya wan­ted to join the Tri­po­li­ta­ni­ans against the Ita­li­an inva­ders in Abys­s­i­nia. On 25 Octo­ber 1911, he obtai­ned per­mis­si­on to tra­vel to Con­stan­ti­nop­le from the Otto­man con­su­la­te in Munich (NARA, Old Ger­man Files, 1909–21, 8000–1396, M1085). Spen­ding almost seven mon­ths in Con­stan­ti­nop­le, not­hing came off his efforts, and in July 1912 he escaped the watch­ful Bri­tish aut­ho­ri­ties and fled for the United Sta­tes. His two years in the US remain some­what obscu­re: he worked as a farm labou­rer and is known to have app­lied for US citi­zenship in 1913, which was denied due to the US’s strict anti-Asi­an immi­gra­ti­on laws, while also res­uming his revo­lu­tio­na­ry acti­vi­ties and brief­ly joi­ning the radi­cal anti­co­lo­ni­al Hin­du­stan Asso­cia­ti­on of the Paci­fic Coast (Gha­dar Par­ty), trans­la­ting their paper Ghadr into Tamil, as well as the Hin­du­stan Asso­cia­ti­on of Ame­ri­ca in New York, but litt­le else is known of his life the­re (Laursen, forthcoming).

The First World War and the Indian-German Conspiracy

Short­ly after the First World War bro­ke out, his old friend Viren­dra­nath Chat­topad­hya­ya (‘Chat­to’) set up the Indian Inde­pen­dence Com­mit­tee (IIC) in Ber­lin and, with Ger­man finan­cial and logistic backing, soon recrui­ted exi­led India­ns into the com­mit­tee.[1] The PA AA holds exten­si­ve files, digi­ti­zed and avail­ab­le online, on IIC’s acti­vi­ties and Acharya’s invol­ve­ment with the group (PA AA, RZ 201/21070–21118 – Unter­neh­mun­gen und Auf­wie­ge­lun­gen gegen unse­re Fein­de – Indi­en). Records show that Acha­rya arri­ved in Ber­lin in Decem­ber 1914 on a Per­si­an pass­port pro­vi­ded by the Irish anti­co­lo­ni­al revo­lu­tio­na­ry Geor­ge Free­man (PA AA, RZ 201/21074–75). He left his Bri­tish pass­port behind in New York and sym­bo­li­cal­ly tur­ned his back on Bri­tish citi­zenship (NARA, Old Ger­man Files, 1909–21, 8000–1396, M1085). Arri­ving in Ber­lin on a Per­si­an pass­port, howe­ver, soon lan­ded him in trou­ble with the Ber­lin aut­ho­ri­ties, but the Aus­wär­ti­ges Amt (AA, For­eign Office) inter­ven­ed and pro­vi­ded him with a Ger­man ID card (Per­so­nal­aus­weis / PA AA, RZ 201/21074–75).

In ear­ly 1915, the IIC deploy­ed its first mis­si­on to Con­stan­ti­nop­le with the aim to col­la­bo­ra­te with the Otto­mans and under­ta­ke mis­si­ons against the Bri­tish throughout the Midd­le East. The AA pro­vi­ded the Indian revo­lu­tio­na­ries with fake pass­ports, tra­vel­ling as Ger­man East Afri­cans, and Acha­rya assu­med the name ‘Muham­mad Akbar’ (PA AA, RZ 201/21078). Throughout the next two years, Acha­rya and the Indian revo­lu­tio­na­ries tra­vel­led across the Midd­le East, reaching Baghdad, Jeru­sa­lem, and the Suez Canal, while sub­ver­ting the aut­ho­ri­ty of Bri­tish pass­ports and citi­zenship (RZ 201/21070–RZ 201/21118).

Howe­ver, litt­le came off their efforts, and by ear­ly 1917 the IIC clo­sed their mis­si­on in Con­stan­ti­nop­le. The 1917 Febru­a­ry revo­lu­ti­on in Rus­sia and Euro­pean socia­list attempts to bro­ker a peace chan­ged the India­ns’ per­spec­ti­ves and alli­an­ces. In May 1917, tra­vel­ling on Ger­man Per­so­nal­aus­wei­se, Acha­rya and Chat­to relo­ca­ted to Stock­holm to bring the ques­ti­on of Indian inde­pen­dence into socia­list peace nego­tia­ti­ons. In other words, they shed their Ger­man East Afri­can iden­ti­ties and, while still sup­por­ted by the AA, sought new alli­an­ces with Euro­pean socia­lists and other colo­ni­al and sub­ject peo­p­les (PA AA, RAV 250–1/474 – Krieg 1914–1917 – Indi­en – Indi­sches Natio­nal­ko­mi­tee in Stock­holm; PA AA, RZ 201/20519 – Die inter­na­tio­na­le Sozia­lis­ten­kon­fe­renz in Stock­holm, Wien und London).

They set up the Indian Natio­nal Com­mit­tee and agi­ta­ted among Euro­pean socia­lists. Howe­ver, the social demo­crats in the Second Inter­na­tio­nal were not sym­pa­the­tic to Acha­rya and Chatto’s efforts and even accu­sed them of being Ger­man agents. Short­ly after the end of the war in Novem­ber 1918, they ter­mi­na­ted their mis­si­on in Stock­holm, but the ques­ti­on remai­ned: what to do next? Reports to the AA reve­al that many of the Indian revo­lu­tio­na­ries in Stock­holm and Ber­lin wan­ted to beco­me Ger­man citi­zens, though it appears that none of them did, but they acqui­red Per­so­nal­aus­wei­se and pro­tec­tion by the Ger­man sta­te (PA AA, RZ 201/21117).

The Russian Revolution and State Authoritarianism

In June 1919, Acha­rya and a group of India­ns, inclu­ding Mahen­dra Pra­tap and Abdur Rabb, depar­ted from Ber­lin for Moscow with Ger­man assi­s­tance (PA AA, RZ 201/21118). After mee­ting Lenin, the group set off for Afgha­ni­stan to explo­it anti-Bri­tish sen­ti­ments and recruit local Muha­jirs into their cam­pai­gn against the Bri­tish in India. Throughout the next three years, Acha­rya set up the Indian Revo­lu­tio­na­ry Asso­cia­ti­on (IRA) in Kabul, he atten­ded the Second Con­gress of the Com­mu­nist Inter­na­tio­nal in Petro­grad and Moscow in July 1920 as a dele­ga­te of the IRA, and with M. N. Roy, Aba­ni Muk­her­ji, and Muham­med Shafi­que, he co-foun­ded the Com­mu­nist Par­ty of India (CPI) in Tash­kent in Octo­ber 1920. Howe­ver, Acha­rya soon fell out with the domi­nee­ring Roy and was expel­led from the CPI in Janu­a­ry 1921. Ins­tead, he asso­cia­ted with nota­ble anar­chists, cri­ti­ci­zed the Bols­he­viks, and eked out a living as a jour­na­list in Moscow, whe­re he met and mar­ried the Rus­si­an artist, Mag­da Nach­man (Laursen, 2020: 241–255; Bern­stein, 2020: 142–159).

Citizenship, Passports, and Sedition in Weimar Berlin

The image shows an archival source, particularly Acharya's German residence permit. It contains handwritten information about as well as a photograph of Acharya, wearting a suit and tie as well as a short mustache.

Fig. 1 M. P. T. Acharya’s resi­dence per­mit, 12 May 1925. PA AA , RZ 207/78315, Agen­ten- und Spio­na­ge­we­sen – Orient.

By the autumn of 1922, Acharya’s pre­sence in Moscow was no lon­ger tole­ra­ted by the Bols­he­vik regime and he had to flee again. In Novem­ber 1922, Acha­rya and Nach­man arri­ved in Ber­lin on Rus­si­an pass­ports (PA AA, RZ 207/80558). Once again, Acha­rya had shed his sta­te-sanc­tion­ed iden­ti­ty and pass­port. Howe­ver, as Acha­rya was known to the AA, the cou­p­le easi­ly acqui­red per­mis­si­on to stay in Ber­lin. By the mid-1920s, the Ger­man capi­tal had beco­me a hub for exi­led Indian revo­lu­tio­na­ries, many of them being alum­ni of the IIC and com­mu­nists such as Roy, causing some trou­ble for the Ger­man state’s diplo­ma­tic rela­ti­ons with Bri­tain. Inde­ed, by late 1924, the two for­mer enemies initia­ted dis­cus­sions about depor­ting several nota­ble India­ns from Ger­ma­ny, inclu­ding Acha­rya, Chat­to, Muk­her­ji, and Roy, illu­mi­na­ting the tenuous posi­ti­on of the exi­led India­ns. In the end, howe­ver, as the Ger­mans felt they owed the India­ns some degree of pro­tec­tion after their col­la­bo­ra­ti­on during the First World War and as the Bri­tish did not want them on the loo­se in India, the depor­ta­ti­on case was drop­ped (Baroo­ah, 2018: 12–23; IOR/L/PJ/12/223; NAI, Home & Poli­ti­cal, NA 1925, NA F‑139‑I Kw). At the same time, as files from the PA AA show, Acha­rya had his resi­dence per­mit exten­ded in Ger­ma­ny (PA AA, RZ RZ 207/80558; RZ 207/78315).

The depor­ta­ti­on case, howe­ver, promp­ted Acha­rya to app­ly for a Bri­tish pass­port to lea­ve Ger­ma­ny (IOR). In his app­li­ca­ti­on, he sta­ted that his pass­port had been sto­len from his address in Ber­lin in 1914 and not that he had left it behind in New York. When the Bri­tish refu­sed to offer Acha­rya amnes­ty for his acti­vi­ties against Bri­tain during the First World War, he aban­do­ned the app­li­ca­ti­on as return see­med impos­si­ble (IOR/L/E/7/1439).

In 1929, Acha­rya resu­med his pass­port app­li­ca­ti­on (IOR/L/PJ/6/1968, file 3981). He was not the only one. In the ear­ly 1930s, other IIC alum­ni such as Rishi Kesh Lat­ta, L. P. Var­ma, Abdur Rah­man Man­sur, and A. Raman Pil­lai also wan­ted to return to India. Like Acha­rya, howe­ver, they found this dif­fi­cult due to their acti­vi­ties during the First World War. The PA AA con­tains files with let­ters from the­se India­ns, asking for finan­cial help to return or even to be able to remain in Ger­ma­ny, nego­tia­ting their indi­vi­du­al cases with the AA, while they awai­ted the out­co­me of their pass­port app­li­ca­ti­ons (PA AA, RZ 207/78314–315–316).

With the rise of Nazism in Ger­ma­ny, life beca­me more dan­ge­rous for India­ns in Ber­lin. At the same time, in India, the Bri­tish were cracking down on the civil dis­obe­dience move­ment and arres­ted thousands of pro­tes­ters, inclu­ding lea­ders such as Gan­dhi, Neh­ru, and Saro­ji­ni Naidu, Chatto’s sis­ter. This made the pro­spect of retur­ning to India almost impos­si­ble. Pil­lai, Man­sur, and Var­ma mana­ged to return to India, while Lat­ta hesi­ta­ted and went to Tehe­ran, whe­re he died short­ly after (PA AA, RZ 207/78314–315–316).

In ear­ly 1934, the Bri­tish final­ly gran­ted amnes­ty to Acha­rya and pro­vi­ded him and Nach­man with Bri­tish pass­ports valid for tra­vel to India on the con­di­ti­on that he would refrain from poli­ti­cal acti­vi­ty (IOR/L/PJ/6/1968, file 3981). With tra­vel money pro­vi­ded by the AA, Acha­rya and Nach­man hur­ried­ly fled Ber­lin in Febru­a­ry 1934 and arri­ved in Switz­er­land, whe­re they stay­ed with Nachman’s sis­ter in Zürich. While the AA hel­ped Acha­rya lea­ve, inter­nal cor­re­spon­dence in the PA AA also shows that they did not want Acha­rya to return to Ger­ma­ny (PA AA, RZ 207/78314–316).

Throughout the fol­lowing year, Acha­rya lived clan­des­ti­nely in Zürich and Paris, without legal resi­dence papers, try­ing to secu­re money for a safe pas­sa­ge back to India, whe­re he still fea­red that he faced the risk of impr­i­son­ment (IOR/L/PJ/6/1968, file 3981). He even­tual­ly retur­ned to Bom­bay in April 1935, whe­re Nach­man joi­ned him a year later. A life of wan­de­ring was over for Acha­rya, and while he remai­ned acti­ve in the inter­na­tio­nal anar­chist move­ment, he never went to pri­son for his poli­ti­cal acti­vi­ties. Nach­man died in Bom­bay on 12 Febru­a­ry 1951, and Acha­rya died impo­ve­ris­hed on 20 March 1954 (Laursen, 2020: 241–255).

Archival Sources

India Office Records, British Library, London, UK

In addi­ti­on to pass­port app­li­ca­ti­ons, the IOR holds Wee­kly Reports of the Direc­tor of Cri­mi­nal Intel­li­gence, who was respon­si­ble for tracking the acti­vi­ties and move­ments of Indian revo­lu­tio­na­ries wit­hin India and abroad. The pass­port app­li­ca­ti­ons usual­ly con­tain Histo­ry She­ets of the app­li­cants as well as cor­re­spon­dence regar­ding the application.

National Archives of India, New Delhi, India

Many of the files from the IOR are also held in the NAI and avail­ab­le online at https://www.abhilekh-patal.in/. The­se inclu­de files on Acharya’s arrest war­rant, his tra­vels to Moroc­co, pass­port app­li­ca­ti­ons, and the 1924 depor­ta­ti­on case against India­ns in Germany.

North American Records Administration, Maryland, USA

The NARA holds files from the Bureau of Inves­ti­ga­ti­on, the pre­cur­sor to the FBI, on the acti­vi­ties of Indian revo­lu­tio­na­ries in North Ame­ri­ca. The Old Ger­man files (1909–1921) cover the peri­od befo­re, during, and after the First World War, inclu­ding mate­ri­al on the Gha­dar Par­ty and the Indian-Ger­man con­spi­ra­cy during the war.

The Political Archive of the Federal Foreign Office (Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amts), Berlin, Germany

The PA AA holds exten­si­ve archi­val mate­ri­al on the acti­vi­ties and move­ments of Indian revo­lu­tio­na­ries in exi­le during and after the First World War. The most signi­fi­cant are the digi­ti­zed files per­tai­ning to the IIC and First World War (RZ 201/21070–21118 – Unter­neh­mun­gen und Auf­wie­ge­lun­gen gegen unse­re Fein­de – Indi­en), which also inclu­des files on Indian sol­di­ers held in Ger­man pri­so­ner-of-war-camps (RZ 201/21244 – Unter­neh­mun­gen und Auf­wie­ge­lun­gen gegen unse­re Fein­de – Tätig­keit in den Gefan­ge­nen­la­gern Deutsch­lands) and the Indian Natio­nal Com­mit­tee in Stock­holm (RAV 250–1/474 – Krieg 1914–1917 – Indi­en – Indi­sches Natio­nal­ko­mi­tee in Stock­holm; PA AA, RZ 201/20519 – Die inter­na­tio­na­le Sozia­lis­ten­kon­fe­renz in Stock­holm, Wien und Lon­don). In addi­ti­on to the­se, the PA AA has exten­si­ve files on the poli­ti­cal acti­vi­ties of India­ns in Wei­mar Ger­ma­ny, inclu­ding mate­ri­al rela­ting to pass­ports and expul­si­ons (RZ 207/78314–316 – Agen­ten- und Spio­na­ge­we­sen – Ori­ent), as well as Indian pro­pa­gan­da, press, and social acti­vi­ties emana­ting from Ger­ma­ny (RZ 207/77446 – Jour­na­lis­ten, Pres­se­ver­tre­ter; RZ 207/77449 – Pres­se­we­sen; RZ 207/77461–462 – Poli­ti­sche und kul­tu­rel­le Pro­pa­gan­da; RZ 207/77463 – Vereinswesen).

Conclusion

The files held in the PA AA, read along­side tho­se in the IOR, the NAI, and the NARA, open a win­dow onto the peri­pa­tetic lives of many Indian revo­lu­tio­na­ries who had col­la­bo­ra­ted with the Ger­mans during the First World War and ended up in Ber­lin in the inter­war years. In fact, it is necessa­ry to look bey­ond the bina­ry colo­ni­al logic of archi­val traces – i.e., IOR (Lon­don) and NAI (Delhi) – and exami­ne a wider web of archi­ves to ful­ly under­stand the peri­pa­tetic life of Acha­rya. Inde­ed, as I have demons­tra­ted here, the PA AA is cru­cial to under­stan­ding such revo­lu­tio­na­ry lives. By focu­sing on pass­ports, a sta­te-aut­ho­ri­sed docu­ment issued to regu­la­te and embrace indi­vi­du­als’ citi­zenship and move­ments, the archi­ves illu­mi­na­te both the ways in which Indian revo­lu­tio­na­ries sub­ver­ted the colo­ni­al legal appa­ra­tus through their tra­vels as well as the dif­fi­cul­ties for them to return to India. Acharya’s many pass­ports reve­al a gre­at deal about the ephe­me­ral stan­dard of sta­te-aut­ho­ri­sed docu­ments in the ear­ly twen­tieth cen­tu­ry which, howe­ver, even­tual­ly lan­ded him in trou­ble with the aut­ho­ri­ties he was try­ing to eva­de when he wan­ted to return to India. At the same time, it also beco­mes clear that, des­pi­te being sta­te-aut­ho­ri­sed docu­ments, rival sta­tes con­tri­bu­t­ed to sub­ver­ting the aut­ho­ri­ty of the­se docu­ments by, at times, pro­vi­ding fake pass­ports and offe­ring hos­pi­ta­li­ty to exi­led revo­lu­tio­na­ries. Howe­ver, as is evi­dent from Acharya’s case, this hos­pi­ta­li­ty was con­tin­gent and reli­ed on the Ger­man state’s embrace of its citi­zens, which ulti­mate­ly was pre­di­ca­ted on exclu­si­on from as much as inclu­si­on wit­hin its bor­ders along the lines of race, eth­ni­ci­ty, and nationality.

Endnote

[1] See Hei­ke Liebau’s ent­ry on the Indian Inde­pen­dence Com­mit­tee: Lie­bau, Hei­ke, “‘Under­ta­kings and Ins­ti­ga­ti­ons’: The Ber­lin Indian Inde­pen­dence Com­mit­tee in the Files of the Poli­ti­cal Archi­ve of the Federal For­eign Office (1914–1920)”. MIDA Archi­val Refle­xi­con (2022): 10 pp, https://www.projekt-mida.de/rechercheportal/reflexicon/, DOI: 10.25360/01–2022-00048, or the article’s ori­gi­nal Ger­man ver­si­on: Lie­bau, Hei­ke, “‚Unter­neh­mun­gen und Auf­wie­ge­lun­gen‘: Das Ber­li­ner Indi­sche Unab­hän­gig­keits­ko­mi­tee in den Akten des Poli­ti­schen Archivs des Aus­wär­ti­gen Amts (1914–1920)”. MIDA Archi­val Refle­xi­con (2019): 11 pp, https://www.projekt-mida.de/rechercheportal/reflexicon/, DOI: 10.25360/01–2022-00007.

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Ole Birk Laursen, Leib­niz-Zen­trum Moder­ner Ori­ent, Berlin