Entangled Ideas: K. M Ashraf, Horst Krüger and New Indology in the German Democratic Republic


TABLE OF CONTENTS: Intro­duc­tion: Horst Krü­ger Papers  |   Kun­war Muham­mad Ashraf Papers Ent­ang­led Ide­as and Archi­ves Appen­dix | End­no­tes   |   Biblio­gra­phy

Introduction: Horst Krüger Papers                                                    

A broad sur­vey of the docu­ments inclu­ded in the Horst Krü­ger Papers (now pre­ser­ved in more than 90 boxes and listed online in the Leib­niz-Zen­trum Moder­ner Ori­ent (ZMO) https://www.jpberlin.de/zentrummodernerorient/biblio/index.php) reveals the breadth and depth of Krüger’s scho­l­ar­ship on colo­ni­al and post­co­lo­ni­al India. Horst Krü­ger (17.8.1920 — 11.3.1989) stu­di­ed Histo­ry and Ger­man Stu­dies at the Hum­boldt-Uni­ver­si­tät zu Ber­lin. From 1957 to 1959, he was a cul­tu­ral con­sul­tant at the Tra­de Rep­re­sen­ta­ti­on of the Ger­man Demo­cra­tic Repu­blic (hence­forth GDR) in India. This time spent in India seems to have inspi­red his lifel­ong scho­l­ar­ship on his host coun­try. From 1960, he star­ted working on the histo­ry of India at the Aka­de­mie der Wis­sen­schaf­ten der DDR /AdW (Aca­de­my of Sci­en­ces of the GDR). His main rese­arch focus was on the Indian Natio­nal Move­ment and its rela­ti­ons with the inter­na­tio­nal labor move­ment. This resul­ted in his mul­ti­vo­lu­me work, Die inter­na­tio­na­le Arbei­ter­be­we­gung und die indi­sche natio­na­le Befrei­ungs­be­we­gung, that appeared as “Indi­sche Natio­na­lis­ten und Welt­pro­le­ta­ri­at”, Ber­lin 1984, und “Anfän­ge sozia­lis­ti­schen Den­kens in Indi­en”, Ber­lin 1985.[1] The Krü­ger collec­tion inclu­des per­so­nal papers, docu­ments, and cor­re­spon­den­ces as well as news­pa­per cut­tings. The collec­tion also houses publi­ca­ti­ons on inter­na­tio­nal anti-colo­ni­al net­works of the Indian natio­na­list move­ment; the Con­gress par­ty and its lea­ders; Mus­lim lea­ders and their role(s) in the edu­ca­ti­on and poli­tics of colo­ni­al India; Neh­ru­vi­an sta­te poli­ci­es; Intra-Asi­an soli­da­ri­ty; Afro-Indian con­nec­tions; and inter­na­tio­nal poli­tics. The­re are nume­rous papers on Afri­ca 1958–61 (Indians in Afri­ca, the South Afri­can Uni­on and several coun­tries); Afro –Asi­an soli­da­ri­ty and the Con­fe­rence of Ban­dung, 1955; North and South Korea 1960–61; Indo­ne­sia 1954–61; and NATO 1957–61. The­re is also a wide ran­ge of papers now pre­ser­ved on micro­films, inclu­ding tho­se from the Archi­ve of the Ger­man Depart­ment of For­eign Affairs, Regar­ding Bri­tish India, Issue 36 (1911–1912).

Listed below are some of the files that con­tain sund­ry threads of ent­ang­led Indo-Ger­man histo­ry. The­re are two pos­si­bi­li­ties to search online for the same.

First­ly, through indi­vi­du­al name sear­ches, that is, by loo­king for spe­ci­fic names of Indians who had con­nec­tions with Ger­ma­ny. Such a search leads one, for instan­ce, to the files rela­ted to:

V.N. Chat­topad­hya­ya
Shyam­ji Krish­na­var­ma
Har Day­al
Ram Chan­dra
Chem­pa­kra­man Pil­lai
K.M. Ashraf
Jabbar and Sattar Khei­ri
G. Adhi­ka­ri
N.M. Joshi

Ram Chan­dra
Rajen­dra Pra­sad
Jawa­harl­al Neh­ru
Auro­bin­do Ghosh

Second­ly, through sear­ches of insti­tu­ti­ons and the­mes, that con­nect Indo-Ger­man his­to­ries. Among others, some of the cate­go­ries that emer­ge from the collec­tion are:

The Edu­ca­tio­nal Sys­tem in India
The ‘All India Tra­de Uni­on Con­gress’
The ‘Afro-Asia­tic Con­fe­rence of Women’ in Cai­ro in Janu­a­ry 1961
The Indian Natio­nal Con­gress and Mass Con­tact)
The ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’
The For­eign Poli­cy of Paki­stan — Rela­ti­ons with India 1957-’61
Indian Uni­ver­si­ties and Col­le­ges 1957-’61
Socia­lism and Com­mu­nism in India
Board Free­dom Move­ment Maha­rash­tra
The ‘Indian Natio­nal Move­ment’
Secon­da­ry Schools in India
The Domestic Deve­lop­ment of Nepal 1956 — 1961
The ‘Silk Let­ter Con­spi­ra­cy Case’
Indian-Japa­ne­se Rela­ti­ons 1916–19
Impe­ria­lism and the Indian natio­nal libe­ra­ti­on move­ment
‘Holy War’ and the Pan-Isla­mic move­ment
Ninth European Con­fe­rence on Modern South Asi­an Stu­dies, 1986
Indian-Ger­man poli­ti­cal rela­ti­ons befo­re World War II

The docu­ments were collec­ted in various archi­ves in India, Gre­at Bri­tain and Ger­ma­ny like for instan­ce at the Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um and Libra­ry, Delhi (NMML), the Natio­nal Archi­ves of India, Delhi (NAI), the Poli­ti­sches Archiv des Aus­wär­ti­gen Amtes, Ber­lin (PAAA; Poli­ti­cal Archi­ve of the Ger­man For­eign Office) or the Dimitroff-Muse­um, Leip­zig.

This post focu­ses on one of the results of such a name search in the Horst Krü­ger collec­tion: files rela­ted to K.M. Ashraf. The­se files occu­py a dis­tinct and important space in the Krü­ger Papers, and can be seen as a gra­phic illus­tra­ti­on of ent­ang­led ide­as and archi­ves.

Kunwar Muhammad Ashraf Papers

The Mar­xist intel­lec­tu­al and cul­tu­ral milieu in the GDR was deeply ent­ang­led with the growth of pro­gres­si­ve socia­list thin­king and poli­tics among Mus­lims in South Asia. Aca­de­mic insti­tu­ti­ons like the Aca­de­my of Sci­en­ces, Ber­lin (Deut­sche Aka­de­mie der Wis­sen­schaf­ten zu Ber­lin, and later Aka­de­mie der Wis­sen­schaf­ten der DDR/ AdW) and the Indo-Ori­en­tal Semi­nar at the Hum­boldt-Uni­ver­si­tät zu Ber­lin with its empha­sis on “New Indo­lo­gy”, ope­ned a new chap­ter to initia­te scho­l­ar­ly enga­ge­ments with Islam and Mus­lim scho­l­ar­ship in India.[2]

In this post, I want to pur­sue a strand of the ent­ang­led Indo-GDR intel­lec­tu­al his­to­ries by fol­lo­wing the tra­jec­to­ry of Kun­war Muham­mad Ashraf (1903–1962)[3] and his efforts to find ans­wers to the “Mus­lim Ques­ti­on” wit­hin the con­text of Indian cul­tu­ral inte­gra­ti­on through his enga­ge­ment with ”New Indo­lo­gy” in the GDR. His ide­as and per­so­nal papers are housed in the Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um & Libra­ry, Delhi, while many of his per­so­nal wri­tings and papers are in the Horst Krü­ger collec­tions in the archi­ve of the Leib­niz-Zen­trum Moder­ner Ori­ent (ZMO). Ashraf´s thin­king and wri­tings on the “Mus­lim Ques­ti­on” were pro­du­ced in dia­lo­gue with Ger­man ide­as and intel­lec­tu­als at the Insti­tu­te of Indo­lo­gy, Hum­boldt- Uni­ver­si­tät zu Ber­lin.[4] It was a signi­fi­cant decisi­on that the Insti­tu­te cho­se a Mus­lim Mar­xist scho­l­ar as a visi­t­ing pro­fes­sor of Medi­eval Indian histo­ry and cul­tu­re.

K.M Ashraf had a long asso­cia­ti­on with Mar­xist inter­na­tio­nal cir­cles as a stu­dent in Uni­ver­si­ty of Lon­don from 1927–32. He con­nec­ted with the wider net­work of South Asi­an Com­mu­nists in Ger­ma­ny, inclu­ding Sajjad Zaheer, Viren­dra­nath Chat­topad­ha­yay and M. N. Roy. His poli­ti­cal role as a Con­gress socia­list par­ty lea­der in char­ge of the Mus­lim mass con­tact pro­gram­me bet­ween 1935 until 1947, and sub­se­quent dis­il­lu­si­onment and move to the Com­mu­nist Par­ty, is a tra­gic tale of mis­sed oppor­tu­nities.[5] Ashraf was a staunch oppo­nent of “Mus­lim sepa­ra­tism” and a firm belie­ver in pro­gres­si­ve inter­na­tio­nal soli­da­ri­ty. Based on the Gangad­har Adhi­ka­ri the­sis, the Com­mu­nist Par­ty of India’s (CPI) decisi­on on the “Mus­lim Ques­ti­on” was in favour of the crea­ti­on of Paki­stan. Despi­te his per­so­nal reser­va­tions, Ashraf moved to Paki­stan due to par­ty pre­cepts. In Paki­stan, he came under poli­ti­cal sus­pi­ci­on and was arrested on char­ges of being a Com­mu­nist. He was neit­her wel­co­med in Paki­stan nor accep­ted back in India.[6] Neit­her here nor the­re, Ashraf beca­me emble­ma­tic of the unre­sol­ved “Mus­lim Ques­ti­on” in post-par­ti­ti­on South Asia: he beca­me a stateless per­son and was in exi­le in Eng­land befo­re he was reha­bi­li­ta­ted in Kir­o­ri Mal Col­le­ge, Delhi whe­re he taught histo­ry from 1956–60.[7] Con­stant­ly under sus­pi­ci­on and attack in India, he moved to Ber­lin on a visi­t­ing pro­fes­sor­ship. A vic­tim of par­ti­ti­on poli­tics in South Asia, Ashraf´s Ber­lin stay was also mar­ked by the har­de­ning of divi­si­on bet­ween the two Ger­ma­nys. He wit­nessed the clo­sure of the free cor­ri­dor bet­ween the two Ger­man sta­tes on 13 August 1961.

Deter­mi­ned to use his time to enga­ge with the issue that had affec­ted both his aca­de­mic and per­so­nal life, Ashraf star­ted working on the the­me of Mus­lim iden­ti­ty and Indian cul­tu­re. As an aca­de­mic and poli­ti­cal activist in colo­ni­al India, he had writ­ten on the topic of the “Mus­lim Ques­ti­on” in India, which was sub­se­quent­ly published as His­to­ri­cal Back­ground of Hin­du- Mus­lim Ques­ti­on in India.[8] He had also writ­ten on the “Mus­lim ques­ti­on” and poli­tics in the Urdu jour­nal Awa­mi Daur and was working on revi­sing his con­tri­bu­ti­ons and publi­shing them as a book. It even­tual­ly came out as An Over­view of Indian Mus­lim Poli­tics 1920–1947.[9] This issue was clo­se to his heart and fel­low com­mu­nist lea­der Sajjad Zaheer was invol­ved in the pro­cess of mate­ria­li­zing the book. In fact, Ashraf and Zaheer dis­cus­sed it during their Ber­lin mee­ting in May 1961. Zaheer even­tual­ly also wro­te the fore­word for the book. As Zaheer noted, Ashraf´s work was cha­rac­te­ri­zed by a strong desi­re that the “Mus­lims will join revo­lu­tio­na­ry, most logi­cal and most sci­en­ti­fic and huma­ne move­ment of India in order that Mus­lims must have a place of honour and digni­ty in the coun­try.”[10] It was this desi­re that impel­led Ashraf to turn to pro­gres­si­ve inter­na­tio­na­lism as an ans­wer to the Mino­ri­ty Ques­ti­on.

The GDR was invol­ved in buil­ding new ties with the erst­while colo­nies and third-world coun­tries and was deve­lo­ping what they cal­led “Modern Ori­en­to­lo­gy”.[11] This visi­on of modern Ori­en­to­lo­gy was to be rea­li­sed and imple­men­ted at the Insti­tu­te for Ori­en­tal Stu­dies at the Aca­de­my of Sci­en­ces, Ber­lin. [12]The New Mar­xist Ori­en­to­lo­gists in the GDR, while pay­ing homage to and “con­ti­nuing the huma­nistic tra­di­ti­on of clas­si­cal Ger­man Indo­lo­gy,” wan­ted to bring fun­da­men­tal chan­ges to the disci­pli­ne.[13] Modern Ori­en­to­lo­gy had its origins in the wri­tings of Karl Marx, simi­lar to which it aimed to con­cen­tra­te on the modern histo­ry and cul­tu­re of India with the stu­dy of socia­list ide­as as the main aca­de­mic con­cern. K. M Ashraf´s Ber­lin years were mar­ked by aca­de­mic vita­li­ty and activism that his Ger­man col­league Horst Krü­ger fond­ly descri­bes in his remi­nis­cen­ces of Ashraf.[14] Both had met in Delhi in 1957 and bond­ed over sha­red rese­arch inte­rests and metho­do­lo­gy. Krü­ger con­si­de­red him not just a good fri­end or col­league but in his own words “Dr. Ashraf was not sim­ply my guru but at the same time the living and inspi­ring examp­le of the Indian people´s strugg­le for free­dom and bet­ter life.”[15]  Ashraf’s visit to Ber­lin as a Guest Pro­fes­sor of Medi­eval Histo­ry in 1960 fur­ther cemen­ted this bond over sha­red aca­de­mic and ever­y­day activi­ties in Ber­lin. His visit coin­ci­ded with the 150 years cele­bra­ti­ons of the Hum­boldt Uni­ver­si­tät and a con­fe­rence on “The Natio­nal Awa­ke­n­ing of peop­le of Asia and Afri­ca and Task of Ori­en­to­lo­gy”. Ashraf, Krü­ger recounts, not only actively par­ti­ci­pa­ted in the con­fe­rence but also gave an impromp­tu lec­tu­re on “Anti-Impe­ria­list tra­di­ti­ons in Urdu lite­ra­tu­re.”[16] During his stay, he also gave a series of lec­tures on the the­me of “The Mus­lim Ques­ti­on in Indian Poli­tics”, which were based on his own poli­ti­cal expe­ri­ence and scho­l­ar­ly wri­tings. [17] The same year also saw him being elec­ted the pre­si­dent of the Indian Histo­ry Con­gress at its ses­si­on in Ali­garh, whe­re he gave an important pre­si­den­ti­al address.[18] This lec­tu­re reflec­ted on the com­plex issue of “Mus­lim cul­tu­re” and the poli­tics of know­ledge pro­duc­tion on Indian histo­ry. Ashraf cri­ti­qued the absence of medi­eval histo­ry in the tra­di­tio­nal Indo­lo­gist stu­dies of Indian cul­tu­re, which focus­sed on Sans­krit lin­gu­is­tic and tex­tu­al stu­dies to defi­ne the core of Indian cul­tu­re – a trend that also con­ti­nued under colo­ni­al and natio­na­list histo­ry-wri­ting whe­re the medi­eval peri­od beca­me the peri­od of cul­tu­ral deca­dence. He did not spa­re the Mus­lim apo­lo­gist histo­ry-wri­tings of Sayy­id Ahmad Khan and Zakaul­lah.[19] Ins­tead, he advo­ca­ted a Mar­xist his­to­rio­gra­phy as deve­lo­ped by Muham­mad Habib at Ali­garh Uni­ver­si­ty, who cri­ti­qued Mus­lim com­mu­na­list and sepa­ra­tist his­to­rio­gra­phy. Remem­be­ring the vio­lent par­ti­ti­on of the coun­try, Ashraf sug­gested a cri­ti­cal enga­ge­ment with the histo­ry and cul­tu­re of Mus­lims in India to rethink the issue of con­flict and (re)conciliation. In this direc­tion, he empha­si­zed a pro­gres­si­ve out­look and cited the examp­le of new Indo­lo­gy in the socia­list world, which was “more holistic and diver­se in its approach” and pro­vi­ded new ori­en­ta­ti­ons in the stu­dy of Indian histo­ry.[20] He high­light­ed the new initia­ti­ve at the Ori­en­tal insti­tu­tes in Ber­lin, Hal­le and Leip­zig in their stu­dy of Mus­lim cul­tu­re in India.[21] The pro­blem of Mus­lim cul­tu­re in medi­eval and modern India and its con­ti­nui­ties and trans­for­ma­ti­on remai­ned a recur­ring rese­arch the­me in his work. Unfor­tu­n­a­te­ly, he could not attain his visi­on, dying sud­den­ly on 7 June, 1962 in Ber­lin due to a heart attack. He was buried at the Zen­tral­fried­hof in Ber­lin Fried­richs­fel­de, also known as Sozia­lis­ten­fried­hof (Ceme­te­ry of the Socia­lists)”.[22]

Ashraf was an important actor in for­ging an ent­ang­led histo­ry of pro­gres­si­ve ide­as among Mar­xist intel­lec­tu­als in GDR and India. His enga­ge­ment with the new Indo­lo­gy pro­ject in East Ber­lin allo­wed him to rethink his own work on Mus­lims and natio­na­lism. Fur­ther, it threw new light on the poli­cy fol­lo­wed by the Com­mu­nist Par­ty on Paki­stan, sup­por­ting the move­ment in the loo­m­ing Cold War con­text. The fail­u­re to come to terms with mino­ri­ties and the ina­bi­li­ty to resol­ve the ques­ti­on of “natio­nal cul­tu­re” remai­ned a frau­ght sub­ject, which was sel­dom dis­cus­sed open­ly. Ashraf revi­si­ted the “Mus­lim Ques­ti­on” not as a reli­gious but as a poli­ti­cal and cul­tu­ral ques­ti­on of mino­ri­ties to ana­ly­se the cate­go­ries of reli­gi­on and histo­ry wri­ting in GDR and India. He enga­ged with and pro­mo­ted new ways of stu­dy­ing Mus­lim and Indian histo­ry to not only empha­si­ze the his­to­ri­cal con­struc­tion and trans­for­ma­ti­on of “Mus­lim and Indian cul­tu­re” but also to demons­tra­te them as mutual­ly con­sti­tu­ting, and not sepa­ra­te, cate­go­ries. The pro­gres­si­ve and inter­na­tio­nal scho­l­ar­ly milieu of East Ber­lin pro­vi­ded a space and fur­nis­hed him with resour­ces to arti­cu­la­te some of the­se unre­sol­ved ques­ti­ons from the past and ima­gi­ne new futures.

Entangled Ideas and Archives

This ent­ang­led histo­ry of intel­lec­tu­al exchan­ge and the trans­for­ma­ti­on of ide­as sha­red bet­ween Ashraf and FRG scho­l­ars is pre­ser­ved as Ashraf files in the Krü­ger collec­tions at the ZMO archi­ve (for details about the files rela­ted to Ashraf see the appen­dix). The making and rema­king of this archi­ve is in its­elf a sub­ject worthy of stu­dy.[23] Due to Ashraf’s sud­den death in East Ber­lin, it see­med that his papers and other docu­ments inclu­ding pho­to­graphs were given to the Aca­de­my of Sci­en­ces of the DGR, Ber­lin, most likely by his wife Phyl­lis Mary Kemp Ashraf, a socia­list activist scho­l­ar, who had accom­pa­nied him to East Ber­lin in 1960.

Figu­re 1: P.M. Ashraf´s Bio data. Box No.38. Krü­ger Nach­lass, ZMO Libra­ry & Archi­ves.

Also found in the Krü­ger Papers are pho­tos that young Ashraf sent to her. A ten­der pri­va­te moment of love appears amidst public and poli­ti­cal papers that are con­cer­ned with com­mu­nist and revo­lu­tio­na­ry work and wri­tings.

Figu­re 2: K. M Ashraf in Laho­re 1937: Box.No. 3, Krü­ger Nach­lass, ZMO Libra­ry & Archi­ves.

Ano­t­her sur­vi­ving spe­ci­men of his per­so­nal archi­ve is the hand-writ­ten auto­bio­gra­phi­cal note in which Ashraf recounts his extra­or­di­na­ry jour­ney from being a devout Mus­lim in Mewat to beco­m­ing a com­mit­ted com­mu­nist in East Ber­lin. The­se were appar­ent­ly trans­fer­red to NMML, Delhi due to the efforts of his son Moham­mad Jaweed Ashraf. Howe­ver, it seems Krü­ger also had addi­tio­nal copies as some ori­gi­nal docu­ments and pho­tos remai­ned with him for his work on the Ashraf Fest­schrift volu­me and found their way into the archi­ve of the Leib­niz- Zen­trum Moder­ner Ori­ent wit­hin the Krü­ger collec­tion.

Along with Ashraf´s own intel­lec­tu­al work and wri­tings, the Ashraf Files also pro­vi­de us with an insight into the making of his Fest­schrift volu­me and the nume­rous let­ters of con­do­lence and affec­tion that arri­ved on his unti­me­ly death, inclu­ding one per­so­nal­ly signed by Jawa­harl­al Neh­ru to com­me­mo­ra­te Ashraf´s life and works. Several of the­se let­ters and essays were incor­po­ra­ted in the feli­ci­ta­ti­on volu­me and many others now sur­vi­ve as let­ters in the Ashraf Files wit­hin the Horst Krü­ger Papers. Krü­ger also collec­ted all the publi­ci­ty mate­ri­als gene­ra­ted for the book, inclu­ding brochu­res and the reviews that appeared after­wards, irre­spec­tive of whe­ther they were cri­ti­cal of or glo­ri­fy­ing Ashraf. The Ashraf Files in the Krü­ger collec­tion show that the prot­ago­nists did not merely sha­re an aca­de­mic or intel­lec­tu­al con­nec­tion but a bond that was roo­ted in mutu­al admi­ra­ti­on and affec­tion. Ashraf seems to have left a las­ting impres­si­on on Krüger´s intel­lec­tu­al and per­so­nal care­er. The Krü­ger collec­tion pro­vi­des an archi­ve of this ent­ang­led histo­ry of ide­as.

Figu­re 3: Boxes con­tai­ning files rela­ted to Ashraf: pho­to­gra­phed by the aut­hor, ZMO Libra­ry & Archi­ves.

Appendix

Docu­ment list based on elec­tro­nic search K.M Ashraf in Krü­ger papers, ZMO Archi­ves

Box Num­mer Sach­grup­pe Autor Titel Quel­le Ort Jahr
3 9,3 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ Habib H. Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf from the Edi­tor of ‘The Agra Citit­zen’). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um & Libra­ry Agra 06.06.1938
3 9,3 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee (?) Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um & Libra­ry Laho­re 19.03.1938
3 9,3 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ Vakil, M.Sh. Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf from the ‘Indian Insti­tu­te of Socio­lo­gy’). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um & Libra­ry Bom­bay 01.04.1938
3 9,3 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ (?) Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um & Libra­ry Delhi 02.04.1938
3 9,3 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ Kach­roo, D.N.(?) Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf in con­nec­tion with ‘The ‘Stu­dents Review’, the jour­nal of the ‘Ben­a­res Stu­dents Asso­cia­ti­on’). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um & Libra­ry Sri­na­gar 11.06.1938
3 9,3 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ Brel­vi, S.A Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um &Library Bom­bay 18.05.1937
3 9,3 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ Mazum­dar, G. Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um &Library Cal­cut­ta 05.05.1937
3 9,3 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ (?) Arti­cle (in ‘The Search­light’ regar­ding a speech held by K.M. Ashraf at a public mee­ting on the rela­ti­ons­hip towards the Con­gress and the Mus­lims). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um &Library (?) 27.04.1937
3 9,3 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ (?) Arti­cle (in a news­pa­per) :”Mus­lim Cul­tu­re And Lea­dership. Con­gress Leader’s View.” (regar­ding a speech held by K.M. Ashraf at a public mee­ting at Pat­na). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um &Library (?) 25.04.1937 (?)
3 9,3 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ Mazum­dar, G. Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um &Library Cal­cut­ta 09.09.1937
3 9,3 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ Brel­vi, S.A. Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um &Library Bom­bay 26.04.1937
3 9,4 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ Mar­da­na, V.(?) Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um &Library (?) 14.10.1938
3 9,4 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ (?) Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf from the Gene­ral Secreta­ry of the Pun­jab Con­gress Socia­list Par­ty). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um &Library Laho­re 22.09.1938
3 9,4 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee Lon­don, M.N. Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um &Library Agra 05.10.1938
3 9,5 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ Bazaz, P.N.(?) Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf, Secreta­ry of the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’, Alla­h­a­bad). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um &Library (?) (?)
4 10,2 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ Kum­arm­an­ga­lam, M. Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um &Library Cam­bridge 03.01.1938
4 10,2 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ (?) Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um &Library Amrit­sar 29.11.1937
4 10,2 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ (?) Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf from the Secreta­ry of the Con­gress Com­mit­tee). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um &Library Bija­pur 19.12.1937
4 10,3 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee (?) Let­ter (to K.M. Ashraf from the Mana­ger of ‘The Dai­ly Asia Agra’). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um &Library Agra 06.12.1937
4 11,6 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ (?) Collec­tion (of several Indian news­pa­pers arti­cles regar­ding K.M. Ashraf and the rela­ti­ons bet­ween the Con­gress and the Mus­lims). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um &Library (?) 22.01.1960
4 11,7 Papers on the ‘All India Con­gress Com­mit­tee’ (?) Com­mu­ni­que (published by K.M. Ashraf in ‘The Deccan Times’ regar­ding a let­ter from J. Neh­ru to R.A. Kid­wai). Neh­ru Memo­ri­al Muse­um &Library Madras 26.09.1937
17 100,1 J. Neh­ru Papers Neh­ru, J. “Let­ter (to Dr. H. Krü­ger regar­ding K.M. Ashraf 2 copies). Krü­ger Files New Delhi (?)
23 128,1 K.M. Ashraf Papers (?) “Anno­ta­ti­on : ”Kun­war Moham­mad Ashraf 1903 -1962. An Indian Scho­l­ar And Revo­lu­tio­na­ry.” (edi­ted by H. Krü­ger published in ‘Cata­lo­gue’, 1973). Krü­ger Files New Delhi (?)
23 128,1 K.M. Ashraf Papers (?) “Review : ”Kun­war Moham­mad Ashraf: An Indian Scho­l­ar And Revo­lu­tio­na­ry 1903 — 1962.” (edi­ted by H. Krü­ger published in the jour­nal ‘Eco­no­mic And Poli­ti­cal Wee­kly’).” Krü­ger Files New Delhi (?)
23 128,2 K.M. Ashraf Papers (?) Let­ters, reviews and anno­ta­ti­ons (in con­nec­tion with the book ”Kun­war Moham­mad Ashraf” by H. Krü­ger). Krü­ger Files (?) (?)
23 128,3 K.M. Ashraf Papers (?) Let­ter (to H. Krü­ger from J. Neh­ru inclu­ding pho­tos from K.M. Ashraf). Krü­ger Files New Delhi 13.10.1963
38 288,1 Pro­files of various Indian and Ger­man Scho­l­ars and Poli­ti­ci­ans (?) Bio­gra­phi­cal sketch (of P.M. Ashraf). Krü­ger Files (?) (?)
49 363,1 Horst Krü­ger Papers Krü­ger, H. “Arti­cle (in a spe­cial edi­ti­on issued by the Insti­tut für Orient­for­schung der Deut­schen Aka­de­mie der Wis­sen­schaf­ten zu Ber­lin) : ““Kun­war Moham­mad Ashraf, An Indian Scho­l­ar And Revo­lu­tio­na­ry (1903–1962).””” Krü­ger Files Ber­lin (?)
58 424,1 K.M. Ashraf Papers Ashraf, K. M. Hand­writ­ten notes (K. M. Ashraf on him­s­elf ). Krü­ger Files (?) (?)
58 424,1 K.M. Ashraf Papers Ashraf, K. M. Typed script: ““K. M. Ashraf’s pre­si­den­ti­al address to the Fourth Ses­si­on of the All-India Stu­dents’ Fede­ra­ti­on held in Cal­cut­ta on the 1st Janu­a­ry, 1939. The Con­fe­rence was ope­ned by Sj. Sarat Chan­dra Bose”” ” Indian Annu­al Regis­ter, 1939, Vol. 1 Cal­cut­ta 1939
58 424,1 K.M. Ashraf Papers Ashraf, K. M. / Gupta, N. L. “Typed script:““ Inter­view with K. M. Ashraf dated 27th Octo­ber 1960””” Krü­ger Files Delhi 27. Octo­ber 1960
63 440,3 Papers on P. M. Ashraf (?) Pho­tos of P. M. Ashraf (belon­ging to Mrs. P. M. Ashraf) Krü­ger Files Laho­re 1907 ?
75 504 Jawa­harl­al Neh­ru: files and news­pa­per arti­cles (?) Neh­ru papers rela­ting to Ashraf, Bald­win, Brid­ge­man, Brodck­way, Chat­topad­hya­ya, Tara­k­nath Das, Edo Tin­nen, Innes, Pol­lit, Ral­land, M.N. Roy, Agnes Smed­ley, H.N. Spal­ding, Ernst Tol­ler, Shcu­kat Usma­ni / Cor­re­spon­dence bet­ween Neh­ru and Motil­al (?) (?) 1936

Endnotes

[1] See ZMO Web­page Bestän­de / Nach­lass Dr. Horst Krü­ger. https://www.zmo.de/biblio/sammlung_krueger.html
[2] On the  lar­ger histo­ry and scho­l­ar­ly activi­ties at the Deut­sche Aka­de­mie der Wis­sen­schaf­ten (Adw) zu Ber­lin see: Anne­ma­rie Haf­ner, „Indologie/Südasienwissenschaften an der Deut­schen Aka­de­mie der Wis­sen­schaf­ten (AdW) zu Ber­lin bzw. der Aka­de­mie der Wis­sen­schaf­ten der DDR zwischen1947 und 1991.“ In Maria Fram­ke, Han­ne­lo­re Lötz­ke, Ingo Strauch (eds.).  Indo­lo­gie und Süd­asi­en­stu­di­en in Ber­lin: Geschich­te und Posi­ti­ons­be­stim­mung. Stu­di­en zur Geschich­te und Gegen­wart Asi­ens.  Vol. 4, 2014. pp. 259–284.
[3] For the bio­gra­phi­cal details, inclu­ding his poli­ti­cal care­er in Con­gress Socia­list Part and Com­mu­nist Par­ty in India, see, Khi­zar Humayun Ansari. The Emer­gence of  Socia­list Thought Among North Indian Mus­lims (1917–1947). Kara­chi: Oxford Uni­ver­si­ty Press, 2015.
[4]  On the  emer­gence of and affi­nities bet­ween the “Jewish Ques­ti­on” in Ger­ma­ny and the “Mus­lim Ques­ti­on” in South Asia see, Aamir Muf­ti. Enligh­ten­ment in the Colo­ny: The Jewish Ques­ti­on and the Cri­sis of Post­co­lo­ni­al Cul­tu­re. Prince­ton NJ: Prince­ton Uni­ver­si­ty Press, 2007.
[5]  Chowd­hu­ry, Abdul Haye, “The Free­dom Move­ment in Mewat and Dr. K. M. Ashraf”, in: Horst Krü­ger, (ed.). Kun­war Moham­med Ashraf: An Indian Scho­l­ar and Revo­lu­tio­na­ry 1903–1962. Delhi: People’s Publi­shing House, 1969, pp. 291 – 340, here pp. 330–333.
[6] On Ashraf’s role in Mus­lim mass con­tact pro­gram­me see: Ven­kat Dhu­li­pa­la. Crea­ting A New Medi­na: Sta­te Power, Islam, and  the Quest for Paki­stan in Late Colo­ni­al North India. New Delhi: Cam­bridge Uni­ver­si­ty Press, 2015.
[7]  Chowd­hu­ry, Abdul Haye, “The Free­dom Move­ment in Mewat”, pp. 331–333.
[8]  Kun­war Moham­mad Ashraf. Hin­du-Mus­lim Ques­ti­on And Our Free­dom Strugg­le. Two Vols. New Delhi: Sun­ri­se Publi­ca­ti­ons, 2005.
[9] Kun­war Moham­mad Ashraf. An Over­view of Indian Mus­lim Poli­tics 1920–1947. Trans­la­ted by Jaweed  Ashraf. New Delhi: Manak Publishers, 2001. The Urdu ver­si­on was ori­gi­nal­ly published in 1963 and has been trans­la­ted by Jaweed Ashraf.
[10] Ibid.,7.
[11]   Ibid.
[12]  Micha­el Masch­ke & Jana Tschu­ren­ev. “Von der Phi­lo­lo­gie Zur Gesell­schafts­wis­sen­schaft: Ber­li­ner Süd­asi­en­for­schung in der Zeit der DDR.“ In Maria Fram­ke, Han­ne­lo­re Lötz­ke, Ingo Strauch (eds.). Indo­lo­gie und Süd­asi­en­stu­di­en in Ber­lin: Geschich­te und Posi­ti­ons­be­stim­mung. Stu­di­en zur Geschich­te und Gegen­wart Asi­ens.  Vol. 4, 2014. pp. 165–203.
[13]  Krü­ger (ed.), Kun­war Moham­med Ashraf. On Krü­ger and his per­so­nal papers  see,
https://www.zmo.de/biblio/sammlung_Krüger.html
[14]  Horst Krü­ger on K.M. Ashraf, in: Krü­ger (ed.), Kun­war Moham­med Ashraf, p. 380.
[15]  Ibid., 380–381.
[16]  Ibid.
[17]  Ibid.
[18] K. M Ashraf. “Pre­si­den­ti­al Address to the Medi­eval Histo­ry Sec­tion of the Indian Histo­ry Con­gress, Ali­garh 1960.” Cited in Horst Krü­ger (ed.). Kun­war Moham­med Ashraf: An Indian Scho­l­ar and Revo­lu­tio­na­ry 1903–l962. Delhi: People’s Publi­shing House, 1966, pp. 403–411.
[19]  Ibid., 405.
[20]  Ibid., 408.
[21]  Ibid.
[22]  Ibid., 384.
[23] See also the post by Anan­di­ta Bajpai. “Tra­cing India in a Ber­lin Archi­ve: Reflec­tions on the Joa­chim and  Petra Heid­rich papers in the Leib­niz-Zen­trum  Moder­ner Ori­ent Archi­ve.” MIDA Web­site Post.

Bibliography

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Ashraf, Kun­war Moham­mad, An Over­view of Indian Mus­lim Poli­tics 1920–1947. Trans­la­ted by Jaweed Ashraf. New Delhi: Manak Publishers, 2001.

——–, His­to­ri­cal Back­ground of Hin­du- Mus­lim Ques­ti­on in India 1725–1943.” Two Vols. New Delhi: Sun­ri­se Publi­ca­ti­ons, 2005.

——–, Indian His­to­rio­gra­phy and Other Rela­ted Papers. Trans­la­ted from Urdu  and pre­pa­red for Publi­ca­ti­on  by Jaweed Ashraf. New Delhi: Sun­ri­se Publi­ca­ti­ons, 2006.

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Chowd­hu­ry, Abdul Haye, “The Free­dom Move­ment in Mewat and Dr. K. M. Ashraf”. In: Horst Krü­ger (ed.), Kun­war Moham­med Ashraf: An Indian Scho­l­ar and Revo­lu­tio­na­ry 1903–1962. Delhi: People’s Publi­shing House, 1969, pp. 291 — 340. 

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——–, Die Inter­na­tio­na­le Arbei­ter­be­we­gung und die indi­sche natio­na­le Befrei­ungs­be­we­gung, in 4 Bän­den. Ber­lin: Aka­de­mie-Ver­lag, 1984

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——–, Indi­sche Natio­na­lis­ten und Welt­pro­le­ta­ri­at. Der natio­na­le Befrei­ungs­kampf in Indi­en und die inter­na­tio­na­le Arbei­ter­be­we­gung vor 1914. Ber­lin: Aka­de­mie Ver­lag, 1984.

Muf­ti, Aamir, Enligh­ten­ment in the Colo­ny: The Jewish Ques­ti­on and the Cri­sis of Post­co­lo­ni­al Cul­tu­re. Prince­ton NJ: Prince­ton Uni­ver­si­ty Press, 2007.

Masch­ke, Micha­el, Jana Tschu­ren­ev, “Von der Phi­lo­lo­gie Zur  Gesell­schafts­wis­sen­schaft: Ber­li­ner Süd­asi­en­for­schung in der Zeit der DDR”. In: Maria Fram­ke, Han­ne­lo­re Lötz­ke, Ingo Strauch (eds.), Indo­lo­gie und Süd­asi­en­stu­di­en in Ber­lin: Geschich­te und Posi­ti­ons­be­stim­mung. Stu­di­en zur Geschich­te und Gegen­wart Asi­ens: 4. Ber­lin: tra­fo, 2014, S. 165–203.